شناسایی ویژگی‌های محیطی تأثیرگذار بر احساس امنیت بانوان در فضاهای شهری (مطالعه موردی: محلات مخصوص و سلامت، منطقه 11 شهر تهران)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی (واحد علوم و تحقیقات)

چکیده

امنیت یکی از نیازهای پایه و حقوق بنیادی انسانی است. از آن‌جا که فضاهای شهری درحقیقت ظرف و بستر تعاملات اجتماعی را تشکیل می‌دهند، می‌بایست بتوانند امنیت استفاده‌کنندگان خود را تأمین کنند. در غیر این صورت، افراد جز در صورت لزوم و اجبار حاضر به گذران وقت خود در آن‌ها نخواهند بود و این امر می‌تواند به کاهش پویایی و سرزندگی فضا‌های مذکور و درنهایت تبدیل آن‌ها به فضاهایی مرده و بدون نظارت اجتماعی بینجامد. این موضوع، به‌ویژه در مورد بانوان، به دلیل آسیب‌پذیری بالاتر آن‌ها از جایگاه برجسته‌ای برخوردار است. با توجه به رابطه متقابل محیط و رفتار، بدیهی است که ویژگی‌های محیطی در ایجاد احساس امنیت یا ناامنی در استفاده‌کنندگان(افراد) تاثیر بسزایی دارد. بنابراین در پژوهش حاضر تلاش شده که از طریق شناسایی این ویژگی‌ها، زمینه ایجاد فضاهای شهری ایمن و امن و امکان حضور فعال بانوان در عرصه عمومی به دور از اضطراب‌های محیطی فراهم شود.
در این راستا، در مرحله نخست، تلاش شده با مطالعه متون و ادبیات مرتبط با موضوع پژوهش، چهارچوبی از عوامل، شاخص‌ها و متغیرهای تعریف‌کننده و تأثیرگذار بر احساس امنیت بانوان در فضاهای شهری تدوین شود. سپس چهارچوب تدوین‌شده در محدوده‌ای که به‌عنوان محدوده مطالعاتی پژوهش حاضر معرفی شده (محدوده محلات مخصوص و سلامت، واقع در منطقه 11 شهرداری تهران)، مورد آزمون قرار گرفته است. برای این منظور، از ترکیبی از روش‌های کمی و کیفی استفاده شده است. درنهایت، پس از انجام مشاهدات میدانی، برگزاری چندین جلسه بحث متمرکز گروهی با حضور بانوان و مصاحبه عمیق با کارشناسان و مسئولان محدوده مطالعاتی، پرسش‌نامه‌ای تنظیم و توسط 200 نفر از بانوان محدوده مطالعاتی پاسخ داده شده است. از مجموع مطالعات انجام‌شده، می‌توان نتیجه گرفت عوامل مکانی (فرم، عملکرد و معنا) در تعریف و سنجش احساس امنیت بانوان در فضاهای شهری تاثیر بسزایی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Recognition of Environmental attributes contributing to women’s’ Security in Urban Spaces (Case Study: Makhsus and Salamat Neighborhoods, Tehran’s 11th Region)

چکیده [English]

Security is a basic and fundamental human need rights. In other words, security is the essence of survival and the basis of the collective life and the establishment of small communities and cities. It is so significant that Islam clearly stressed its importance. In addition, security has two important aspects which are the objective and subjective (the feeling and perception of security) aspects. One of the factors affecting the feeling and perception of safety and security is the personal and individual characteristics. Based on this issue, women (who are among the most vulnerable groups) were chosen as the target group of this research.
As urban areas are the bed and place of the city interactions, they should be able to provide the safety and security of the users. If one area is unsafe or unsecure, people do not spend much of their time in that area and this causes the loss of liveliness and turns that area into a dead and inactive one. Women inability in using the urban areas only because such areas are insecure is somewhat against the principles of social justice due to which being able to use the urban areas with safety and security is one of the basic rights of the citizens. Obviously, the first step for making urban spaces secure and safe is recognizing the contributing factors on fear of crime. A noticeable proportion of these factors is related to the environmental attributes on the grounds that some physical characteristics may make the space ready and suitable for criminal acts and encourage the offenders for offences.
In regards the effect of the environment specifications on people’s behavior, feeling and perception, in this study, finding the environmental effective specifications on women’s feeling and perception of safety and security is investigated. In fact, this research aims to obtain the answer to the question of what qualified urban space specifications lead to a sense of security and safety by women. First, existing literature of the research topic and the related hypotheses was studied and then the conceptual framework of the research (environmental effective specifications on women’s feeling and perception of security) was developed. Thereafter, the mentioned framework in the area of Makhsus and Salamat neighborhoods (as the case study area of this research) was experimented on. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods were applied through such techniques as field surveys, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and questionnaires. In addition, different statistical methods were applied in order to analyze the data
The findings of the research illustrate an obvious relationship between the form, activity and meaning of environment with women’s feeling and perception of security in urban areas. In other words, the confusion and chaos in each one of these 3 parameters can cause a level of anxiety, stress or fear in women.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Security
  • fear
  • Urban Spaces
  • women
  • Makhsus and Salamat neighborhoods (Tehran)
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