عنوان مقاله [English]
The beaches and surrounding areas have always been of interest to human societies. This can be attributed to the existence of two territories of land and water in these areas, which leads to the creation of competitive advantages in the social, economic, physical and other aspects. The considerable demand of the population for the exploitation of coastal areas has caused problems and disruptions in the system of these areas. These problems, as has explained by the Vice President for Strategic Planning and Supervision, have variety of aspects; like environmental, landuse, political and security, regulation and rights, etc aspects. So these areas require to integrated approach. Hence, since the early 90's in the world and after less than a decade away in Iran (late 70's), the comprehensive integrated coastal zone management plan has begun to link planning in the three national, regional and local levels.
Since 1976, the concept of "environmental quality" in the field of urban studies (urban planning and design) has been expressed, which addresses all aspects of urban environments and spaces (Rafieian et al., 2013). The concept has been discussed and developed by many theorists over the past few decades. In terms of content, the last decade can be the period of maturity of the concept of environmental quality, but there are still many challenges in terms of implementation and operation.
The need for the integrated and comprehensive approach to coastal areas at the micro and macro scales, as well as the multidimensional concept of environmental quality has provided an opportunity to look at coastal areas with the lens of environmental quality, identify environmental quality indicators and their priority.
The method of analysis in this study is based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) and data were analyzed using SmartPlS 3 software. To test the model, data were collected from 160 questionnaires based on Likert spectrum in coastal area of Bandar-Anzali. According to Smart PLS software outputs, users of space have an indirect impact on 9 indicators of environmental quality that were derive from theoretical foundations. Desirable environmental quality zones have 9 features that "permeability" is stronger and more powerful than other features. According to this model, changes of environmental quality affects the changes of permeability of the coastal zone up to 87%.
In this study, permeability is defined through four indicators. These four indicators include: no space confusion, quality of riding and pedestrian pathways, visibility of natural and valuable sights and the possibility of walking and cycling. Therefore, high quality coastal zones have the highest impact on these four indicators.
After permeability, the flexibility variable is more influenced than other variables. In this research, flexibility is defined by four indices of flexibility of outdoor space, services for persons with disabilities, flexibility of buildings, and unobstructed accessibility of people to spaces. Therefore, if the environmental quality is present in a coastal zone, the four mentioned indicators are expected to will be in a desirable condition.
In addition to permeability and flexibility, other known indicators in order to influence the environmental quality of coastal areas include: functional compatibility, efficiency, meaningful, proportionality, variety, presence of different group of people and sustainability. All of these variable have been identified and measured by this study.