عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The trafficking of goods in our country, in addition to having adverse economic effects is also important as an economic-social challenge. In addition, at present,this phenomenon is a serious threat to free tradeand imposes significant costs on the economic structure of countries.On the other hand, with globalization of industry, trade, finance and changes in the international system, geo-strategic thoughts have turned towardbeliefs in geo-economic borders.Thus, changes in the functionofborders and seeing it as an economic opportunity by political system in place has caused an increase in population rates in border areas and has led to the creation of new conditions. This new situation has forced the center to reconsider its relations with its surroundings. Border regions of countries are considered sensitive and strategic areas.The isolated environment of non-fertile border regions, especially in mountainous and desert areas, linked to the absence of welfare systems and a lack of incentive for living is considered the basis of political, economic and security problems of present day governments. Inability to produce goods, lack of employment, low income and lack of access to basic needs are the most important socio-economic characteristics of the region that could lead to problems and disorders such as immigration, goods smuggling, insurgency and insecurity in the region.On the one hand, cities in these regions are very limited and are under-developed and there is a great need for comprehensive planning for these areas. So far, however, various problems related to these border areas have only been sporadically studied. Not only are border areas not been laid out and explained in the national development plans, but also their dimensions and characteristics are less likely considered.Goods smuggling as a sinister social phenomenon hasa very negative impact on the economy. Goodssmuggling is one of the important components of economic corruption.The present study analyzes the economic and social factors effective in reducing goods smuggling in the border areas of Kurdistan Province.
In the present research, survey method was used. After collecting data using questionnaires and processingit with SPSS software, based on the measured variables descriptive statistics (frequency distribution tables) and inferential statistics (factor analysis) was used. Research statistical population consisted of officials and experts at 11organizations associated with smuggling in border areas (including security agencies and departments, the Governor’s Office, customs, the justice department, anti-smuggling campaigners, law enforcement, Economy and Finance Department, government inspection bodies, oil companies and the mining industry and trade) .The determined sample size consisted of 55 cases. Thus, in each organization or agency 5 experts were questioned. The research was carried out in 2012. A multiple-choice questionnaire was used and based on the Likert Scale, from very low to very high.
The findings show that in the social component, the top priority was human resources followed by training, participation and quality of life. In the economic component, the top priority was financial investment followed by financial capital and commerce. Thus, it is recommended that in the utilization of natural mineral and agricultural resources in border towns, local labor force be used for export development. In addition, it is recommended that for the development of agricultural activities, local natural agricultural resources and native labor force be made use of in border towns in order to develop processing industries dependent on agricultural products and pave the way for creativity and innovation of young people in entrepreneurship and enterprise.