ارزیابی تطبیقی سیر تحول شاخص های مسکن شهر مریوان با نقاط شهری استان کردستان و کشورایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد

2 استاد گروه جغرافیای دانشگاه تهران

3 مشاور بخش خصوصی در شهرسازی

4 کازشناس ارشد اداره کل راه و شهرسازی استان کردستان

چکیده

مسکن نقش مهمی در رضایت جسمی، روانی و نیازهای اجتماعی افراد دارد. مسکن علاوه بر این که می‌تواند در خدمت ترویج عدالت اجتماعی و کاهش نسبی شکاف بین طبقات مختلف اجتماعی درآید، نقش عمده‌ای در استحکام اقتصادی، ثبات اجتماعی جامعه و توسعه ملی دارد. در این میان شاخص‌های کمی و کیفی مسکن یکی از کلیدی‌ترین ابزار سنجش توسعه در کشورها محسوب می‌شود. گرچه در دنیا اهمیت تحلیل شاخص مسکن و نقش آنها پذیرفته شده، اما این شاخص‌ها در ایران چندان مورد مطالعه و استفاده در تدوین سیاست‌های مسکن قرارنگرفته‌اند. همین مسئله باعث شده که سیاست‌گذاران و تصمیم‌گیران آگاهی چندانی نسبت به آنها در تصمیم‌گیری روزمره  و نقش و اثر آنها بر ساکنان نداشته باشند. هدف این تحقیق دستیابی به یک شناخت جامع از وضعیت مسکن در نقاط شهری کشور، استان کردستان و شهر مریوان از طریق بررسی و ارزیابی تطبیقی روند تحولات شاخص‌های کمی و کیفی مسکن طی دوره 90-1345 با شرایط مطلوب می‌باشد. روش تحقیق توصیفی_تحلیلی و بر تحلیل داده‌های ثانویه پایه‌گذاری شده است. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که شاخص‌های کمی مسکن از سال 1345 تا 1390روند مطلوبی را طی کرده است. هرچند که محدوده‌های مورد بررسی از نظر تولید مسکن و تراکم خانوار در واحد مسکونی به شرایط  نسبتاً مطلوب رسیده، اما از نظر سایر شاخص‌های کمی ( تراکم نفر و خانوار در اتاق و واحد مسکونی و...) تا رسیدن به شرایط مطلوب فاصله دارد. همچنین از نظر شاخص‌های کیفی نیز هر چند در طی 45 ساله اخیر روند مناسبی طی شده، اما هنوز در نقاط شهری کشور برخی از واحدهای مسکونی با مصالح بی‌دوام و نیمه بادوام ساخته شده‌اند. همچنین در نقاط شهری کشور بخش عمده‌ای از واحدهای مسکونی عمر مفید خود را طی کرده‌اند و نیازمند نوسازی و بهسازی هستند. به علاوه میزان اجاره‌نشینی از سال 1365 تا 1390 یک روند صعودی را طی کرده است (18/33 درصد). این وضعیت با توجه به شرایط فرهنگی کشور به معنای افزایش شکاف و فاصله طبقاتی و عدم توان گروه‌های کم درآمد در دستیابی به مسکن است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The comparative assessment of housing indicators changes in Marivan with urban areas of Kurdistan province & Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Keramattolah ziari 2
  • mahsa haji 3
  • asad moradi 4
2 prof, Dept of Geography, university of Tehran
3 consuliting
4 officer
چکیده [English]

Although the rate of urbanization in developed countries remains in a suitable position  and is under control, the continued rapid growth of urbanization in developing countries (such as Iran) is quite evident. This issue of providing shelter and adequate housing in the country has turned into a serious crisis and has global-scale problems.
Housing has an important role in satisfaction of the the physical, emotional and  social needs of people. In addition, housing can serve to promote social justice and reduce the relative gap between different social classes. Moreover, it has an important role in economic solidity and social constancy of community and national development. The qualitative and quantitative indicators of housing are one of the key measurement tools for development in of countries. Although worldwide the analysis of housing indicators and the their role are very important, they are not used in codification of housing policy in Iran. Therefor policy  and decision-makers  have no knowledge of housing indicators`in decision making and their impact on residents. The goal of this research is a comprehensive recognition of housing conditions in the urban areas of Iran and the transition process of quantitative and qualitative indicators of housing in Kurdistan Province and the city of Marivan will be assessed comparatively in the period 1966 – 2011. . The research method used was analytic – descriptive and based on analysis of secondary data. The results of this research show that quantitative indicators of housing desirably proceeded from 1966 to 2011. Although the scope of the study in terms of housing and household density of residential units have had  relatively favorable conditions, there is a distance in reaching the desirable conditions in other quantitative indicators (household members per room and residential unit). Furthermore, qualitative indicators of housing have come a long way from 45 years ago, but some housing units in urban areas are made from semi-durable and non-durable materials. Most housing units in urban areas of the country have exhausted their habitability and are in need of modernization and improvement.
In terms of occupation, the property in urban areas of the country had an upward trend until 1986(68/98 per cent). The main reason for this being law enforcement of urban land and land transfer. However, from then to 2011 a downward trend occurred in the country which reached 56/57 percent in urban areas. The rate for Marivan was 53/94 percent and 56/34 percent in urban areas of Kurdistan Province.
 In addition, renting from 1986 to 2011 followed an upward trend (33/18 percent).Although the rate of ownership of property is different in different societies and high property ownership rates is not an indicator of favorable housing conditions,  according to our cultural norms a decline in household ownership must be a sign of increased gap between social classes and low-income groups (particularly the first and fourth deciles) This is a manifestation of the effects of inefficient policies of the past, especially for low-income housing groups. Thus, index and housing standards should be flexible enough to meet the needs of users in different parts of the country to link with their cultural preferences and be based on preferences of residents.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Housing
  • quantitative indicators
  • Qualitative indicators
  • urban areas
  • Iran
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