عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
In the increasing development of cities, despite the existence of extensive facilities for children in the present times, no special attention is paid to the effects of the environment on children's creativity. Given the fact that children can go to the playgrounds in city parks independently from age 6 and receive the greatest influence from the environment at this time it is necessary to pay more attention to playgrounds for children to improve their creativity. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to carry out an extensive evaluation of the effect of physical components of playgrounds on creativity development in Iranian children aged 6 to 12 years in urban parks. On this basis, two hypotheses are proposed: firstly, the physical features of the playgrounds including physical diversity, physical flexibility, and vitality in city parks are effective in increasing creativity of children and secondly, there are differences among the levels of effect of physical indices of the environment on dimensions of children’s creativity including Originality, Flexibility of thought, Elaboration and Fluency in city parks.
In this research, descriptive and analytical methods were used simultaneously. In the literature review of previous studies and theories, the descriptive method was used to achieve recognition of relationships and correlations and for the relationships between variables and indices, analytical methods were employed. The required data from the population sample was collected with the help of survey methods and through closed questionnaires -researcher-made answers- and after classification correlation between the effective variables in this study were obtained by using SPSS and factor analysis. These factors included flexible thinking, diversity of materials, elements of sign, the presence of natural elements, physical flexibility, elaboration, originality and diversity of visual detail. Then, a research model was developed based on relationships between variables with path analysis and help of Smart PLS software program. Finally, to ensure the validity of the results, an image based questionnaire was used and at the same time the children’s behaviour during play was studied .
The results show a significant relationship between environmental factors and creativity, each physical factor has different direct and indirect effects on the dimensions of creativity. Factor of diversity (including variety indices in visual components, sign-making and material variety) highly affected most of the factors as well as children’s creativity. Thefactor of vitality caused by presence of natural elements as a mediating factor is affected by the factor of diversity and it has the highest direct effect on creativity factors including innovation and thought flexibility.Flexibility factor elements as a mediating factor is affected by the factor of diversity and has direct effect on thought flexibility. It should be noted that the factor of marking index elements in playgrounds compared to other factors has less effect on creativity development during play. Finally, according to the conducted study, some recommendations and solutions are proposed in the fields of urban planning and landscape design to improve children’s creativity in playgrounds of city parks.
- Ahadi, H., & Bani Jamali, S. (2009). Developmental Psychology (Basic concepts in child psychology), Second Edition, Tehran, Jeyhoon Press.]in Persian[
- Altman, I., Wohlwill, J. F., & Rapoport, A. (1980). Human Behavior and Environment: Advances in Theory and Research. Environment and Culture: Plenum Press.
- Amabile, T. M., Hill, K.G., Hennessey, B. A., & Tighe, E. M. (1994). The Work Preference Inventory: assessing intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations. Journal of personality and social psychology, 66(5), 950.
- Amabile, T. M., & Pillemer, J. (2012). Perspectives on the Social Psychology of Creativity. The journal of creative behavior, 46(1), 3-15.
- Behroozfar, F. (2001). Principles of Open spaces Housing Fitness for Physical and Mental Childrens Conditions, Markaz e Tahghighat e Maskan va sakhteman, Tehran.]in Persian[
- Bentley, I. (2003). Responsive Environments: A Manual for Designers, Translation: Behadfar, m., Tehran. Elm va Sanat University Press. ]in Persian[
- Brodersen, R. M. (2005). Environmental Effects on Creative Thinking and the Role of Affect, arousal, and person-environment fit. Colorado State University.
- Christensen, Pia, & O'Brien, Margaret. (2003). Children in the City: Home Neighbourhood and Community: Routledge.
- Davari, A., & Rezazadeh, A. (2014). Structural Equation Modeling with Pls, Tehran, Jahad Daneshgahi Press agency.]in Persian[
- Eini Far, A. (2003). A model for Analysis the flexibility in Traditional Housing, Honarhaye Ziba Journal, 13, 64-77.]in Persian[
- Fainstein, S. S., & DeFilippis, J. (2015). Readings in Planning Theory: John Wiley & Sons.
- Fallah, M., Masoud, M., & Navaie, A. (2014). Role of Resilient and Flexible Urban space in Disaster Management.
- Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. London: Sage Publication.
- Guilford, J. P. (1966). Intelligence: 1965 model. American Psychologist, 21(1), 20.
- Hemlin, S., Allwood, C. M., & Martin, B. R. (2008). Creative Knowledge Environments. Creativity Research Journal, 20(2), 196-210.
- Klantari, K. (2010). Processing and Analysis of Data on Socio-economic Research by using the Spss Software, Tehran, Farhang e Saba Press.]in Persian[
- KarimiAzeri, A. R., Parvizi, R., Khaleghi, S. J., & Hosseini, S. B. (2015). Effective Design Principles in Promotion of Children's Creativity in Residential Spaces. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 202, 31-46.
- Knoflacher, H. (2002). Principles of Planning and Design for Pedestrian and Bicycle Access. Translation: Gharib, F., Tehran University Press.]in Persian[
- Kristensen, T. (2004). The Physical Context of Creativity. Creativity and innovation management, 13(2), 89-96.
- Landry, C. (2000). Urban Vitality: A new Source of Urban Competitiveness. ARCHIS(12), 8-13.
- Lennard, H. & krohest, S. (1998). Urban Design and Social life, Translation: Mojtabapour, R., Journal of Architecture and Urbanism, 44,45(7), 21-28.]in Persian[
- Lynch, K. (2002). A Theory of City Form. Tehran, Tehran University Press.]in Persian[
- Lubart, T. (2003). Psychologie de la créativité: Armand Colin.
- Meerow, S., Newell, J. P., & Stults, M. (2016). Defining Urban Resilience: A review. Landscape and Urban Planning, 147, 38-49.
- Niu, W .(2007). Individual and Environmental Influences on Chinese Student Creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 41(3), 151-175.
- Okulicz-Kozaryn, A. (2013). City life: Rankings (livability) Versus Perceptions (satisfaction). Social indicators research, 110(2), 433-451.
- Pakzad, J. (2005). Guideline urban design in Iran, Tehran, Vezaret e Maskan va Shahrsazi va Memari.]in Persian[
- Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1969). The Psychology of the Child: Basic Books.
- Plambech, T., & Van Den B., Cecil C. K. (2015). The Impact of Nature on Creativity–A Study among Danish Creative Professionals. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 14(2), 255-263.
- Runco, M. A. (2014). Creativity: Theories and themes: Research, development, and practice: Elsevier.
- Share Pour, M. (2010). Urban Sociology, Tehran. Samt Press.]in Persian[
- Talen, E. (2012). Design for diversity: Routledge.
- Thórisson, H. Th. (2004). A Framework for Exploring the Evolutionary Roots of Creativity. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the European Conference on Case-Based Reasoning (ECCBR 2004).
- Torrance, E. P. (1988). The Nature of Creativity as Manifest in its Testing. The nature of creativity, 43-75.
- Webster, M. (2006). Merriam-Webster online dictionary.
- Wetzels, M, Odekerken-Schröder, Gaby, & Van Oppen, Claudia. (2009). Using PLS path Modeling for Assessing Hierarchical Construct Models: Guidelines and empirical illustration. MIS quarterly, 177-195.