تحلیل ارتباط بین قابلیت پیاده مداری محلات و آلودگی هوا، مطالعه موردی: نواحی پیرامون ایستگاه های سنجش کیفیت هوا در شهر تهران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

چکیده

ارتباط سلامت عمومی و برنامه‌ریزی شهری موضوعی نوین و در عین حال پراهمیت است و توجه به این مسئله در برنامه¬ریزی آینده شهرها از جایگاهی ویژه برخوردار است. در این مقاله، کیفیت هوای شهری به عنوان عاملی تأثیر گذار در سلامت شهروندان و پیاده مداری محلات از مشخصه های مهم و نوین محیط انسان ساخت شهری موردنظر قراردارند. امروزه بخش عظیمی از آلودگی هوای کلانشهرها به سبب انتشارات آلاینده ها در بخش حمل ونقل شهری است و این امر لزوم توجه به گونه های حمل ونقل پایدار نظیر حمل و نقل عمومی را بیش از پیش آشکار می سازد. بدین منظور این مطالعه به بررسی قابلیت پیاده مداری محلات به عنوان راهبردی تأثیر گذار و بلند مدت در راستای ارتقاء سفرهای پیاده شهری و کاهش آلودگی هوا می‌پردازد. در این پژوهش، از میانگین غلظت سالیانه (در سال 1389) برای آلاینده¬های O3، NO، CO، PM10 و تخمین قابلیت پیاده مداری در چهارده محدوده پیرامون ایستگاه های سنجش کیفیت هوا، استفاده شد و در ادامه تغییرات میزان آلاینده ها و قابلیت پیاده مداری محلات با فاصله از مرکز شهر و همچنین میزان همبستگی غلظت آلاینده ها و قابلیت پیاده مداری محلات با استفاده از تحلیل رگرسیونی و همبستگی مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. یافته های پژوهش حاکی از افزایش غلظت آلاینده های اولیه و قابلیت پیاده مداری محلات در نواحی پیرامون مرکز شهر و افزایش غلظت آلاینده ثانویه O3 با فاصله از مرکز شهر است. همچنین قابلیت پیاده مداری محلات و غلظت آلاینده های O3 و PM10 دارای همبستگی معناداری با یکدیگر می باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Analysis of the relationship between capability of Neighborhoods Walkability and Air Pollutionو Case study: Areas around air quality monitoring stations in Tehran

چکیده [English]

The relationship between public health and urban planning is an innovative and important issue which enjoys a prominent position in the future urban planning. In this regard, ad -verse air quality condition and air pollutant concentrations higher than the permitted limit set by the World Health Organization are considered as a threat to the health of citizens in big cities. According to result of air pollution monitoring (conducted in the Tehran Air Quality Control Company), Tehran air quality has deteriorated in recent years. Likewise, according to the World Bank estimates, the annual economic value of losses of life and damage caused by air pollution in Iran is totaled $ 1.8 billion and Tehran residents’ life-time has on average become shorter by 5 years. Owing to the special geographical condi -tion (topography and meteorology), social (population distribution and traffic), culture (level of culture and related education) and urban development, Tehran metropolitan is faced with the dilemma of air pollution. It is necessary to mention that motor-vehicle emissions are the primary source of most fine and ultra- fine particles in Tehran (More than 70 percent of Tehran’s air pollution is related to motor-vehicle emissions). Both urban air quality as an influential factor in public health and neighborhoods walkability as another important feature of urban built environment are considered in this paper. It should be noted that a large part of the current metropolitan air pollution is caused by emissions from the urban transport sector; thus representing the importance of public and sustainable urban transport. Having this in mind, this study focuses on capability of neighborhoods walkability as a long-term and effective strategy to promote walking trips and improve ur-ban air quality. In this research, the average annual concentrations (in years 2010-2011) of Ozone (O3), Nitric oxide (NO), Carbon monoxide (CO), Particulate matter (PM10), and capability of neighborhoods walkability in fourteen areas around air quality monitoring stations are studied. To estimate the capability of walkability, the 2009 model proposed by Marshal and his colleagues is utilized with slight modification. Measures that are used in the equation include net residential density, intersection density, land-use mix, retail units density and average distance from public transport stations. In the next step, cor-relations between them are calculated using correlation and regression models along with spatial analysis in relation to distance from city centers. These data were analyzed and calculated in ArcMap software. In addition, city centers were determined based on Tehran master plan approved in 2007. Research pinpoint the concentration of primary pollutants, capabilities of neighborhoods walkability increase in adjacent areas of city center and the concentration of secondary pollutant O3 increase with distance from city center. Capabil -ity of neighborhoods walkability and concentration of Ozone (O3) and PM10 were also correlated with each other. In addition, the highest walkability area was observed in sur -rounding area of Golbarg, region 4 and 7 stations and surrounding areas of Pasdaran and Ostandari stations were the most polluted among the others areas.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Walkability
  • Urban Planning
  • Air Pollution
  • Mixed Use
  • Public health