رویکردی عملیاتی در ارزیابی جریان های اصلی شکل پایدار شهر با تمرکز بر مدل شکل شهر بوم-کارا. مورد پژوهی ریخت-گونه های شهر اصفهان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده هنر و معماری ،واحد علوم تحقیقات،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران،ایران

2 استاد طراحی شهری،دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی،دانشگاه علم و صنعت، تهران، ایران

3 دانشده معماری و شهرسازی،دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان،ایران

چکیده

شکل شهر به عنوان واسط میان انسان و محیط، مظهر و تجسم جریان­های شکل دهنده و دگرگون کننده فرم مصنوع است. جریان­های انرژی در تولید، استفاده و نگهداشت فرم شهر منجر به شکل­گیری و دگردیسی شکل شهر می­شود. فرم مصنوع حاصل از فرآیندها و جریان­های یاد شده، فرستنده جریان­های اطلاعاتی بصری و ادراکی به انسان به عنوان دریافت کننده است. در تحقیق حاضر تبادلات و تعاملات میان انسان و محیط زیست او براساس جریان­های انرژی مورد نیاز دامنه آسایش محیطی (تمرکز بر انرژی مورد تقاضا برای گرمایش و سرمایش داخلی فرم مصنوع) و نیز جریان­های اطلاعات (بصری) در نظر گرفته می­شود. این دو جریان انرژی و اطلاعات(بصری) به عنوان جریان­های اصلی و غالب فرم مصنوع در نظر گرفته می­شوند. در تحقیق تمامی روابط و برهمکنش­های یکپارچه جریان­های انرژی و اطلاعات در محتوای شکل شهر براساس مدل نظری "شکل شهر بوم _کارا" مورد تحلیل و بررسی قرار می­گیرد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف جست­وجوی روابط یکپارچه درونی میان جریان­های اصلی شکل شهر، دو حالت شاخص بسته شدگی را مورد دقت و ریزبینی قرار می­دهد. حالت نخست شاخص بسته­شدگی مبین نقش عناصر عمودی شکل شهر (ساختار سه بعدی محیط  هندسی فرم مصنوع) و پخشایش آنها در عملکردهای محیطی فرم مصنوع است (لوک آدولف) و حالت دوم مبین نقش عناصر افقی شکل شهر (ساختار دو بعدی محیط هندسی سطوح فرم مصنوع) و پیکره­بندی هندسی آن در پایداری جریان­های اطلاعاتی بصری است (بندیکت). بر این اساس محتوای ارزیابانه این تحقیق شامل ریخت_گونه­های نظام ریخت­شناسی شهر اصفهان است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می­دهد که میان دو حالت شاخص بسته­شدگی رابطه معکوس و قوی و از لحاظ آماری معنی­دار وجود دارد که تشریح کننده این نکته است که بافت­های قدیمی با ساختار ارگانیک دارای پایداری بالاتر محیطی (در فصول سرد سال با توجه به سرمای شدید فصول سرد سال در اقلیم گرم و خشک اصفهان ) و همچنین پایداری بالاتر جریان­های اطلاعاتی (بصری) است.  بنابراین یکپارچگی جریان­های بصری (اطلاعات و انرژی) براساس مدل نظری تحقیق در بافت­های قدیمی با ساختار ارگانیک قابل اثبات است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A practical approach to analysis of the generic flows of sustainable urban form with a focus on Eco-Efficient Urban Form (EEUF) model (The case of Isfahan morphological types)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yones Changalvaiee 1
  • Mostafa Behzadfar 2
  • Mahmud Mohhamadi 3
  • Zahra Sadat Saeideh Zarabadid 1
1 Department of art and architecture, Science and research branch of Islamic Azad university,Tehran,Iran
2 department of architecture and urban development, Iran science and technology,Tehran, Iran
3 Department of architecture and urban development, Isfahan art university, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

As an interface between humans and their peripheral environment, urban form is the embodiment of formative and transformative flows of the built form. Energy flows of urban form production, operation and maintenance lead to the generation and transformation of built form which is the transmitter of information flows, such as visual and perceptual flows, between humans as receptor and the built environment. On this basis, continuous and integrated interactions between humans and the living environment is considered as energy operational flows of environmental comfort (heating and cooling energy demand) and informational flows of perception, cognition and evaluation of the built form (focusing on visual interaction) which are the two generic flows of built form in relation with humans. These relations and interconnections between energy and information flows are excavated based on the Eco Efficient Urban Form (EEUF) model. The present research aims to explore the relationship between these two flows and the built form based on two distinct states of occlusivity factor: distribution of built elements in vertical plane (Adolphe occlusivity factor for operational energy flows), and Benedikt occlusivity factor for visual information flows which demonstrates the interconnections between the horizontal built elements perimeter map and visual sight flows. The analytical content of the study was chosen from the morphological aspects of Isfahan in the form of ten morphological types presenting general morphological trends of Isfahan. With regard to these, results indicate that there is an inverse correlation between the two states of occlusivity: occlusivity in vertical planes for energy performances and occlusivity in horizontal planes for sustainable visual information flows between built form and humans. The results reveal that the fabrics with organic morphological aspects and structure have a higher value in terms of energy performance occlusivisty factor, especially effective for decreasing heating energy demand in cold seasons, and a lower value in terms of isovist occlusivity factor, indicating higher value of isovist compactness leading to coherency in visual information flows. Hence, the results indicate that the integration between two generic flows of sustainable urban form is demonstrable for old tissues with old organic morphological patterns. The main contribution of the study is to confirm the relationship and interconnection between generic flows of energy and information as the key content of EEUF model.
The research is focused on the operational mode of energy flows (indoor energy demand) and the visual interactions of information flows.  Finally, future research should therefore concentrate on the investigation of the integrity between perceptional aspects of urban form and outdoor environmental comfort as the main characteristics of urban form environmental performance in the form of EEUF model. It is worth to mention that the study is mostly focused on the environmental performance and morphological configuration in hot and arid climate. Therefore, other effective parameters such as structures, visual proportion of vertical facades, aesthetic aspects, meaning of place, environmental preferences, sense of place, etc. necessitate further investigations in the future. Reanalysis of the study model according to the new types of morphological units and other climates as well as addressing perceptional aspects can provide valuable results for developing sustainable urban form frameworks. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Occlusivity
  • Isovist
  • energy demand
  • urban form
  • information flows
-        Adolphe, L. (2001) "A simplified model of urban morphology: application to an analysis of the environmental performance of cities", Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 28, 183-200.

-        Batty, M. (2001) "Exploring isovist fields: space and shape in architectural and urban morphology", Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 28, 123-150.

-        Benedikt, M. L. (1979) to take hold of space: isovists and isovist fields, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 6, 47-65.

-        Broadbent, G. (1990) Emerging Concepts of Urban Space Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, London.

-        Caniggia, G. and Maffei, G. L. (2001) Architectural Composition and Building Typology: Interpreting Basic Building, Alinea, Florence.

-        Chrysoulakis, N., Lopes, M., Jose, R.S., Et Al.  (2013) " Sustainable  urban  metabolism  as  a link  between  bio -physical  sciences  and  urban  planning:  The  BRIDGE project", Landscape and Urban Planning, 112, 100 -117. DOI: 10.1016/j.urblandplan.2012.12.005

-        Conzen, M. R. G. (1960) Alnwick, Northumberland: a study in town-plan analysis, George Philip, London.

-        Coward, L. A. and Salingaros, N. A. (2004) "An information architecture approach to cities", Journal of Information Science, 30, 107-118.

-        Cullen, G. (1971) the Concise Townscape, Architectural Press, Oxford.

-        Gibson, J. J. (1979) The ecological approach to visual perception, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

-        Grutter, Jurg, (2004), “Aesthetics in architecture”, Tehran, trans. Jahanshah, Pakzad and Abdolreza, Homayoun, edit. 2, pup. Shahid Beheshti University. (In Persian)

-        Hillier, B. and Hanson, J. (1984) The Social Logic of Space, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

-        Kämpf .J .H and Robinson D. (2009) "A simplified thermal model to support analysis of urban resource flows", Energy and Buildings, 2007, 39(4):445–453.

-        Kämpf, J. H. (2009) On the Modelling and Optimization of Urban Energy Fluxes. PhD Thesis, EPFL, Switzerland.

-        Kropf, K. (1996) "Urban tissue and the character of towns", Urban Design International 1, 247-63.

-        Kropf, K. (2009) ‘Aspects of urban form’, Urban Morphology 13, 105-20.

-        Kropf, K. (2013) Intelligent Master Planning Tools (working paper), London, England: University College London, Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis.

-        Kropf, K. (2014) "Ambiguity in the definition of built form", Urban Morphology 18(1), 41-57.

-        Kropf, K. (ed) (2008) New Stewartby Design and Access Statement (Roger Evans Associates, Oxford).

-        Kropf, K. and Changalvaiee Y. (2014, July) Taking a metabolic perspective in urban morphological analysis: the case of Isfahan, Paper presented at 21st International Seminar on Urban Form (ISUF), Porto.

-        Kropf, K. S. (1993) An enquiry into the definition of built form in urban morphology, unpublished PhD thesis, Geography, University of Birmingham, Birmingham.

-        Lynch, K. (2004), The Image of the City,trnas: Manouchehr Mozayeni, Theran University, Tehran.(In Persian)

-        MacFarlane, A. G. J. (2003) "Information, knowledge and the future of machines", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A, 361, 1581–1616.

-        Martin Centre, Future Systems, GRECO, RP+K, TUë V Rheinland (1997) ``Towards zero emissions urban development, final report'', project ZED-RENA-CT94-0016, EC DGXII, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.

-        Merlier, L. (2015) Interactions between urban structures and air flows: Numerical study of the effects of urban morphology on the building wind environment and the related building energy loads, L’Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (INSA Lyon), Retrieved from http://theses.insa-lyon.fr/publication/2015ISAL0070/these.pdf

-        Ministry of Road and Urban Development (MRUD) (2010) national standards of building sector book series, 19th issue, energy saving, Iran. (In Persian)

-        Ministry of Road and Urban Development (2010) national standards of building sector book series, 19th issue, energy saving, Iran.

-        Nasar, J. L. (1998) The evaluative image of the city, Sage Press, Thousand Oaks, CA.

-        Nikolopoulou, M., Baker, N. and Steemers, K. (2001) "Thermal comfort in outdoor urban spaces: understanding the human parameter", Solar Energy, 70, 227–235.

-        Osmond, P. (2008) "An enquiry into new methodologies for evaluating sustainable urban form", unpublished PhD thesis, University of New South Wales.

-        Perez D (2014) A framework to model and simulate the disaggregated energy flows supplying buildings in urban areas, PhD Thesis, EPFL, Switzerland.

-        Psarra S. and McElhinney S. (2014) "Just around the corner from where you are: probabilistic Isovist fields, inference and embodied projection", journal of space syntax, 5(1), 109-132.

-        Robinson, D. (2012) Computer Modelling for Sustainable Urban Design: Physical Principles, Methods and Applications, Routledge.

-        Rongrong Y., Ning G. and Michael O. (2016) "The mathematics of spatial transparency and mystery: using syntactical data to visualise and analyse the properties of the Yuyuan Garden", Visualization in Engineering, 4:4

-        Salat S (2009) "Energy loads, CO2 emissions and building stocks: morphologies, typologies energy systems and behavior", Building research and information, 37(5-6), 598-609.

-        Salingaros, N. A. (1999) "Urban space and its information field", Journal of Urban Design, 4, 29-49.

-        Schaltegger, S. and Sturm, A. (1990) "Öologische Rationalität (German/in English: Environmental rationality)", Die Unternehmung 4, 117–131.

-        Turner, A. (2007) "UCL Depthmap 7: From isovist analysis to generic spatial network analysis", Sixth International Space Syntax Symposium, Istanbul, 12-15 June.

-        Turner, A. and Penn, A. (1999) "Making isovists syntactic: isovist integration analysis", Second Space Syntax Symposium, Brasilia, 29 March - 2 April.

-        Wolman, A. (1965) "The metabolism of cities", Scientific American, 213, 179-190.

-        Zhang, Y. (2013) "Urban metabolism: A review of research methodologies", Environmental Pollution, 178, 463-473.