نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران.

چکیده

در عصر حاضر لزوم پرداختن به مسئله معنا و کشف لایه‌های عمیق معنایی در حوزه‌‌های مختلف اجتماعی، فرهنگی، هنری و معماری به امری اجتناب ناپذیر بدل شده است. بحث کمرنگ شدن این مهم در ارتباط با فضاهای شهری و معماری، الزام کاربرد روش‌های فکری و فلسفی منوط به معنا توأم با نگرشی نقادانه و عمیق را بیش از پیش مطرح کرده است. از مهم‌ترین این روش‌ها می‌توان به رویکرد نشانه‌شناسی با گستره‌ای وسیع در بررسی پدیده‌های مختلف اشاره کرد. بدین‌ترتیب در راستای پژوهش با به‌کار بردن روش نشانه‌شناسی در یافتن عناصر مکان‌ساز در مجموعه تاریخی سعدالسلطنه قزوین، پیوندی میان نقش نشانه‌شناسی و چیستی مکان برقرار شده‌است. این مجموعه که به عنوان کاروانسرا در عصر قاجار کاربرد داشته، در چند سال اخیر به دنبال بازسازی‌های صورت گرفته در قالبی بدیع و به عنوان فضای شهری پویا به حیات خود ادامه داده است که به واسطه استمرار حضور شهروندان و در پی داشتن احساسی از تعلق به مکان، از ویژگی‌های خاص فضایی خود سخن به میان می‌آورد و بدین‌ترتیب جست­وجوی مفاهیم فضایی پیرامون آن را به موضوعی درخور تأمل تبدیل می‌کند. در این راستا فرض بر آن است که استفاده از دانش نشانه‌شناسی می‌تواند به عنوان نقش مکمل، منجر به خوانش دقیق‌تر مکان و ارتقای کیفیت فضایی آن گردد. به عبارتی عناصر مکان‌ساز که به واسطه تجربه و ادراکات حسی مخاطب ایجاد می‌شوند، در گذار از نشانه‌شناسی به طور مشخص در ارتباط با بنا و متن قرارگیری آن مطالعه می‌شوند.  با نظر به فرضیه مطرح شده، هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی مؤلفه‌‌‌های مرتبط با مفهوم مکان با نگرشی نشانه‌شناسانه و به روش توصیفی_تحلیلی است که در نهایت تطبیق مؤلفه‌ها با مجموعه سعدالسلطنه قزوین به ‌واسطه مشاهده، مصاحبه، پرسشنامه و نقشه‌های شناختی از طریق ترسیم کروکی و تحلیل‌های آماری نرم‌افزارSPSS 20 در قالب‌ ارائه فراوانی و میانگین داده‌ها ‌‌و آزمون همبستگی اسپیرمن بررسی‌ می‌شوند. نتیجه پژوهش ابتدا بیانگر اهمیت نقش نشانه‌شناسی در یافتن مؤلفه‌های ارتقا‌دهنده فضا به مکان (همچون توجه به زمینه و انطباق با محیط، معنامندی، ارزش‌های فرهنگی و اجتماعی، هویت و ماندگاری فضا، خاطره‌انگیزی) و سپس بررسی و تحقق این موارد در روابط و نسبت‌های مختلف میان فرد و مکان از منظر توجه به نشانه‌شناسی ادراکات، حافظه تاریخی، فرهنگی، اجتماعی و ذهنیت مخاطب است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Reflection of semiotics ideas in the process of moving from space to place in the historical Complex of Qazvin Saad-al-saltaneh

نویسندگان [English]

  • noushin sekhavat doust 1
  • Fariba Alborzi 2

1 M.A. in Architecture, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.

چکیده [English]

It is already inevitable to address the issue of meaning and to discover the deep semantic layers in social, cultural, and artistic areas and also in architecture. The observation that this has not been the case in regard to urban spaces and architecture has put an emphasis on the requirement for use of intellectual and philosophical methods depending on meaning with a critical, profound attitude. One of the most important such methods is the semiotic approach examining a wide range of phenomena. Therefore, a link was established in this research between the role of semiotics and the quality of the historic monument known as Sa'd al-Saltaneh in the city of Qazvin, Iran through the use of the semiotics methodology for finding the place-making elements. Used as a caravanserai in the Qajar era, the monument has continued to function in a novel form as a dynamic urban space after reconstructed in the past few years, Due to the citizens’ continuous visits and sense of belonging to the place, it presents its particular space features, turning the search for surrounding space concepts into a subject to be contemplated. It is assumed that use of semiotics can lead to a more accurate interpretation of the place and promoted space quality as a supplementary role. In other words, the place-making elements, developed as a result of the visitors’ experience and sensory perception are studied   with respect to the building and its context of location in the transition from semiotics. The method of semiotics used in this research takes the form of an analytical method, which makes contemplation and manifestation in the semantic domain possible through prioritization of the background and concentration on interpretation of the visitors’ mental presumptions in confrontation with the work.
In fact, it becomes perfectly possible through semiotic contemplation in the process of transforming and understanding a sign into a meaningful sign, referred to here as promotion of space into place, to refer to mental presumptions and learn about the historical, social, and cultural context that influences the perception of a rich image of the place in the audience’s mind while relying on his sensory perceptions and experiences in a deeper interpretation.
According to the stated hypothesis, the purpose of the present research is to identify the factors pertaining to the concept of place with a semiotic perspective and the descriptive-analytical method, next adapted to Sa'd al-Saltaneh historic monument using observations, interviews, questionnaires, and cognitive maps through croquis drawing after explanation of the above factors by means of semiotics. In the above questionnaire, sample size was obtained by the Cochran formula, and data analysis was made using SPSS 20 through presentation of data frequency and mean and Spearman’s test of correlation. The research results indicate the importance of the role of semiotics in the search for the factors promoting space to place, such as consideration of the context and adaptation to the environment, meaningfulness, cultural and social values, the identity and durability of the space, and memorability. The study also involved an examination and realization of the above factors in different relations between the individual and the place from the perspective of considering the semiotics of perception, historical, cultural, and social memory, and audience mentality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • semiotics
  • Space-Place Transition
  • Sense of place
  • Meaning
  • Qazvin Sa'd al-Saltaneh

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 URL1: Google Maps (7, 15, 2017): https://www.google.com/ maps/place/Sa'd al-Saltaneh+ Caravanserai

URL2: Qazvin Municipalitie )6, 20, 2018): http://farhangi.qazvin.ir