کارکرد معماری حسینیه‌ها به عنوان فضای باز شهری با استفاده از الگوی مسیر حرکت (نمونه موردی: حسینیه‌های شهر نائین)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد معماری، دپارتمان مهندسی معماری، دانشکده فنی پسران سمنان، دانشگاه فنی و حرفه­ ای استان سمنان، ایران.

2 استادیار، دانشکده فنی مهندسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شاهرود، شاهرود، ایران

چکیده

حسینیه­ها و تکایای ایرانی، مظهر پیوند زمان، مکان و مردم است و به دلیل ویژگی فضای شهری بودن آنها، نه­تنها در قیاس با مکان­های هم­­عملکرد خویش در سایر کشورها هویتی متمایز داشته، بلکه به عنوان تنها فضاهای باز شهری با عملکرد مذهبی در فرهنگ شهرسازی مسلمانان منحصر به فرد هستند. با توجه به ویژگی­های فرهنگی کشورمان و به ویژه نقش اسلام و باورهای دینی در هویت ملی و اجتماعی ایرانیان، بررسی چیستی و ویژگی­های کالبدی حسینیه­ها بدیهی می­نماید. در مقاله حاضر، براساس روش تحقیق توصیفی_تحلیلی و با استفاده از الگوی مسیر حرکت انسان در خصوص این که فضاهای باز شهری چیست و فضاهای مذهبی مانند حسینیه­ها باید دارای چه مؤلفه­هایی باشند تا در زمره­ فضای باز شهری قرار گیرند، بررسی شده است. سپس با مطالعه­ ساختاری هفت نمونه از حسینیه­های شهر نائین، به بررسی شاخص­های کالبدی حسینیه­ها و تطبیق این شاخصه­ها با عوامل تأثیرگذار بر شکل­گیری بنا به عنوان فضای باز شهری و بررسی مسیر حرکت انسان در این حسینیه­ها با استفاده از الگوی جریان پرداخته شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می­دهد که ویژگی کلی دسترسی و ارتباط با گذرهای اطراف، داشتن ورودی­های متعدد، تعامل ایجاد شده بین مردم و وجود روح حیات شهری، عوامل مؤثر و تعیین­کننده­ای در احتساب فضاهای باز مذهبی مانند حسینیه­ها به عنوان فضای باز شهری هستند. به­گونه­ای که مسجد نوگاباد با شش ورودی، دارای بیشترین و حسینیه گودالو (سنگ) با دو ورودی، دارای کمترین آلترناتیو الگوی حرکتی هستند.  با شناخت و به­کارگیری هرچه بیشتر اصول طراحی چنین فضاهایی از قبیل مکانیابی، انعطاف­پذیری در فرم و عملکرد و مفاهیم غنی نمادین، می­توان تداوم بیان کالبدی یک فرهنگ در محیط و هویت­بخشی به شهر ایرانی کمک مؤثری نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Functional of Architecture Hosseiniyeh as Urban open space Using Path pattern (Case Study: Hosseiniyehs of Nain City)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahya Ghouchani 1
  • Mohammad Taji 2
1 Master of Architecture, Department of Intelligent Decision Making, Islamic Azad University, Shahroud Branch, Shahrood, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahroud Branch, Shahrood, Iran

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