نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری معماری، عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده فنی و مهندسی دانشگاه یاسوج

2 دکترای معماری و مدرس مدعو، گروه معماری و شهرسازی، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین ایران.

چکیده

رفتار فضایی انسان­­ها در محیط­های گوناگون­ از یک­­ سو متأثر از ویژگی­های عینی محیط و از سوی دیگر تحت تأثیر شرایط ذهنیِ آنها قرار دارد. بنابراین نحوه ادراک آنها از یک فضا، تا حد زیادی به ویژگی­های عینی محیط و شرایط ذهنی آنها در شناخت عناصر محیط بستگی دارد. از آنجا که چگونگی انطباق  ویژگی­های عینی محیط با شیوه­های ادراک ذهن افراد، یکی از مهمترین چالش­های مطرح در حوزه طراحی محیط است، پژوهش حاضر این موضوع را در بستر یک فضای عمومی شهری نسبتاً پیچیده با عنوان بازار بررسی نموده و با ارزیابی کیفیت ادراکی محیط با استفاده از تئوری روان­شناسی گشتالت و نیز تحلیل نظام پیکره­بندی فضایی بازار با استفاده از روش چیدمان فضا، به تحلیل جنبه شناختی و ادراکی در ارتباط با فضای بازار پرداخته است. پس از معرفی شاخص­های مورد نظر در هر دو تئوری، فرایند تحلیل آغاز گردید. در بخش تحلیل چیدمانی، نقشه بازار در محیط نرم­افزار فراخوانی شد و با استفاده از خروجیِ شاخص­هایی چون مخروط دید، عمق و یکپارچگی فضایی و قابلیت دسترسی و کیفیت فضایی بازار تحلیل شد. از بُعد شناختی نیز به منظور استخراج شاخص­های گشتالتی، از روش ترسیم نقشه­های شناختی استفاده شد. بنابراین از جامعه آماری مد­نظر تحقیق خواسته شد از یک ورودی مشخص وارد بازار شده و پس از طی مسیر 30 دقیقه­ای در بازار، تصاویر ذهنی خود از ساختار فضایی بازار را در قالب یک کروکی ترسیم نمایند. پس از گردآوری اطلاعات از هر دو روش، یافته­های به دست آمده مورد تحلیل و تطبیق قرار گرفت. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از آن بود که فاکتورهای متعدد عینی و ذهنی در کنار هم و گاه با اولویت­بندی­هایی نسبت به یکدیگر، در تشخیص راه­یابی صحیح فضا مؤثر هستند. همچنین نتایج حاصل از تحلیل­های چیدمانی یک محیط در بعضی موارد همسو با نتایج تحلیل شناختی آن محیط و در بعضی موارد نیز در تناقض با آن قرار دارد که این موضوع تا حد زیادی متأثر از ویژگی­های فضایی محیط مورد نظر و عناصر به کار رفته در آن است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Study of Spatial Patterns and Cognitive Characteristics of the Iranian Bazar Using "Space Syntax" and "Gestalt" Theories (Case Study: Qazvin)

نویسنده [English]

  • maryam kiaee 2

2 PhD researcher in Islamic Azad University of Yasouj.

چکیده [English]

In addition to their objective, overt aspects, different spaces have subjective, covert dimensions, which cannot be inferred simply through analysis of their physical structures. These features, which are classified as cognitive features of space, are largely influenced by the space users’ types and methods of perception of space. You receive part of the environment information via presence in the space and with the help of your sensory abilities. Depending on your needs and motivations, some of the information is perceived by your mental system, and recognition is ultimately achieved through analysis of the perceived information and their registration in mind. Thus, mental or cognitive maps are formed for you, which in turn result from transformation of an objective entity into a subjective one, on which basis your mental image of an environment takes shape. These cognitive maps are largely dependent on the values, beliefs, memories, aspirations, etc. of people who use an environment. Therefore, it can be argued that people have different types of perception of the environment. Therefore, the quality of the objective and subjective features is effective in space users’ cognition and perception of the environment, and they utilize one or both of these perceptions to evaluate the environment. Moreover, the physical quality of the space is effective on its recognition, which turns recognition of the structural features effective  in identification of space into another aspect of the significance of this research. Therefore, the present research sought to investigate the cognitive and perceptual aspects of a traditional market as a case study by evaluating the perceptual quality of the environment using Gestalt psychology and analyzing the system of spatial configuration using space syntax and to analyze the space users’ spatial-cognitive behavior in the relatively complex environment. After the factors required by both theories were introduced, the process of analysis began. On the syntactic analysis side, the market map was loaded in the software environment, and the market was analyzed using the values of factors such as the cone of vision, spatial depth and integrity, and spatial accessibility and quality. On the cognitive analysis side, the method of drawing cognitive maps was used for extraction of the Gestalt factors. Therefore, the research population was asked to enter the market through a specific entrance and draw their mental images of its structure in the croquis format after traveling around the market for thirty minutes. After data were collected using both methods, the obtained findings were analyzed and compared. The results of the research indicated that several objective and subjective factors are effective, either at the same time or with some prioritization with respect to each other, in proper wayfinding in spaces, particularly unfamiliar and less familiar ones. Moreover, the results obtained from the syntactic analysis of an environment are in some cases consistent with those of its cognitive analysis, and they contrast in other cases, depending to a great extent on the spatial features of the environment and the elements used in it.
Accordingly, a traditional market in Iran was selected for a case study, and people’s spatial behavior in the urban space with a relatively complex structure and their perception thereof was analyzed. Therefore, the questions of the research are as follows.

Which configuration features of a market are perceived and considered more closely by users?
How do different people—particularly those who are unfamiliar or less familiar with the space—find or, in other words, choose the ways to their destinations in the market?

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Space layout
  • Cognitive properties of space
  • Space syntax theory
  • Gestalt theory of perception
  • Qazvin Bazaar

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