نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای شهرسازی، استادیار دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان

2 دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان

3 استاد گروه طراحی شهری دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران

چکیده

نظام شهرسازی کشور در دهه‌های معاصر بسیار دستخوش تغییر و تحول قرارگرفته است. یکی از موضوعاتی که در این تغییر و تحول اثرات شایانی بر توسعه شهرهای ایران بر جای گذاشته، موضوع تراکم ساختمانی در طرح‌های توسعه شهری بوده است. به ‌منظور رسیدگی به این موضوع، هدف مقاله پیش رو، بررسی چگونگی تعیین تراکم ساختمانی مسکونی در طرح‌های جامع شهرهای مراکز استان‌های ایران از زمان تهیه نخستین طرح تاکنون و ارائه یک گونه­شناسی از آنها و تشریح ویژگی‌های آن است. نوع تحقیق از حیث روش  توصیفی_تحلیلی و از حیث محتوای اطلاعات یک مقاله اصیل است. روش جمع‌آوری داده‌ها اسنادی و مراجعه مستقیم برای دسترسی به آنها بوده است. تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها نیز از طریق تشریح ساده روابط میان آنها صورت گرفته است. یافته‌های مقاله نشان داده است که می‌توان پنج گونه مختلف از روش تعیین تراکم ساختمانی مسکونی را شناسایی نمود. گونه نخست روش سنتی (که خود به سه زیرگونه کاهشی، افزایشی و سه سطحی تقسیم می‌شود)، گونه دوم روش شناور، گونه سوم روش راهبردی_ساختاری، گونه چهارم روش ترکیبی و گونه پنجم سایر روش‌ها. بر این اساس یک روند تاریخی در ‌گونه­شناسی ارائه شده مشخص گردید. به طوری که هر یک از گونه‌ها و زیرگونه‌ها در مقطع زمانی خاصی از ‏تاریخ چند دهه‌ای تهیه طرح‌های توسعه شهری کشور، بیشترین تأثیر خود را بر چگونگی تعیین تراکم ساختمانی مسکونی در ‏شهرها بر جای گذاشته‌اند. ‏همچنین بررسی سیر تحول تاریخی این گونه‌ها نیز نشان داد که قوانین و مقررات مصوب فرادستی در خصوص موضوع تراکم ساختمانی نقطه­عطف تعیین و به ‌کارگیری این روش‌ها در طرح‌های جامع شهری ایران بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Typology of method of zoning and determining of building density in city comprehensive plans in I.R.Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Masoud 1
  • Shirzad Yazdani 2
  • Mostafa Behzadfar 3

1 Assistant Professor in Urban Planning, Isfahan University of Art, Isfahan, Iran

2 PhD student in Urban Planning, Isfahan University of Art, Isfahan, Iran

3 Professor in urban planning, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Iran’s urban planning system has undergone many changes in recent decades. An issue that has had a significant impact on the development of Iranian cities has been that of building density in urban development plans. In order to address the issue, the present article was aimed at specifying the density of residential buildings in comprehensive plans of Iran’s provincial capitals since the preparation of the first plan so far and providing a typology thereof and explaining its features. This original descriptive-analytical article adopted a documentary data collection method with direct reference to access the data, analyzed simply through description of the relationships between them. The findings indicated that five different types of residential building density specification method could be identified: Traditional Method (with three subtypes: Reduction, Incremental, and Three-Level), Floating Method, Strategic-Structural Method, Combined Method, and Other Methods. On that basis, a historical trend was identified in the proposed typology, where each type or subtype in a certain period of the timeline has the greatest impact in specification of the density of residential buildings in cities. Moreover, the study of the historical evolution of such types demonstrated that laws approved by the upper hand and regulations concerning the issue of building density have functioned as turning points for application of these methods in Iran’s comprehensive urban plans.
The adoption of the Regulations for Increasing Density and High-Rise Buildings by the Iranian Supreme Council of Architecture and Urban Planning in 1990 turned the inverse relationship between the two variables of parcel size and building density into a direct relationship. This resulted in the development of open spaces and increase in building density in the municipal rules and regulations for construction and urban planning, considered particularly in the theoretical foundations and development patterns in plans. Another important factor in the shift from traditional to three-tier subtypes was the Rules and Regulations for Cities’ Residential Zoning to Apartment Complexes, Multi-households, and Single Units to Preserve Neighborhood Rights in Residential Units, ratified in 1992. Along with the earlier regulations, these induced a lasting change in the approach adopted in the plan to the issue of specifying building density. This approach causes the increase in the density of buildings to be conditioned upon increase in outdoor space, decrease in the level of residential infrastructure, avoidance of segregation, and observance of neighborhood rights through provision of light and sun and avoidance of overlook. Another influential factor that has led to the creation of a strategic-structural type involves the (Comprehensive) Strategic-Structural Plan of the city of Tehran, ratified in 2007, which was followed by nearly all the subsequent plans. Finally, the comprehensive plans of Tehran in 1969, 1991, and 2007 have played an important role in specification of density in other plans, where the widespread zoning of building density began from the comprehensive plan of Tehran ratified in 1969. In general, the study of density specification experiences in provincial capitals can provide urban planners and designers with guidelines for specification of the density of residential buildings. Thus, they can pathologize the existing methods and provide optimal density specification methods based on the requirements of each city and the internal and external advantages, so as to achieve the correct forecast in the use of resources, lands, natural environments, and infrastructures according to population capacity and upper-hand rules.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Typology
  • Zoning
  • Residential Building Density
  • Comprehensive Urban Plan
  • Provincial Capital

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