نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد معماری دانشکده معماری و هنر دانشگاه گیلان

2 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران

چکیده

مجتمع­های مسکونی همچون هر برساخته‌ دیگری علاوه بر فضا و کالبد فیزیکی خود، حاوی بار ادراکی برای شهروندان هستند. کیفیت بصری، نقش مهمی در چگونگی شکل‌گیری این بار ادراکی دارد. بدین‌ترتیب، توجه به کارکرد ادراکی مجموعه‌های مسکونی به میزان زیادی وابسته به کیفیت بصری آن است که مقوله‌ای کیفی به شمار آمده و از این رو، تحلیل آن پیچیدگی‌های بسیاری به همراه دارد. در این راستا تحلیل‌های ایزوویست و خطوط دید ابزاری مؤثر در جهت تحلیل و در نتیجه سنجش کیفیت بصری، از طریق روش‌های کمی فراهم می‌آورند. بدین‌ترتیب هدف این پژوهش، ارائه‌ روشی برای به ‌کارگیری ابزار ایزوویست و خطوط دید در فرآیند سنجش کیفیت بصری در مجتمع‌های مسکونی است. این پژوهش، به طور موردی در شهر کرمانشاه انجام شده است. برای این منظور، ابتدا مجتمع‌های مسکونی واقع در شهر کرمانشاه با استفاده از تحلیل­های فرمی، مبتنی بر یک روش‌ کمی، گونه­شناسی و دسته‌بندی شده‌اند. سپس به منظور جلوگیری از تأثیر فضای شهری ناهمخوان اطراف مجتمع­ها به عنوان عامل مداخله‌گر، شکل گونه‌های حاصله با روش«نرمال‌کردن» همگن شده و کیفیت فضایی_کالبدی گونه‌های نرمالایز شده‌ نیز با ابزار اسپیس‌میت مورد سنجش قرار گرفته است. در مرحله‌ بعد، کیفیت بصری آنها با استفاده از ابزار ایزوویست، با تکیه بر شاخص‌های مساحت، مقدار زاویه‌ راندگی، بیشترین خط شعاع دید و انحصار مورد سنجش قرار گرفته و داده‌های کمی استخراج شده است. در نهایت، همبستگی میان داده‌های حاصل از سنجش کیفیت بصری، با داده‌های حاصل از سنجش کیفیت فضایی_کالبدی گونه‌ها، مورد آزمون قرار گرفته و تحلیل شده است. یافته­های این پژوهش نشان می­دهد که هر یک از گونه‌های مجتمع­های مسکونی، شاخص­های کیفیت بصری و خطوط دید معینی دارد که به طور کمی و کیفی با سایر گونه­ها قابل مقایسه است. همچنین نتایج این پژوهش نشان می­دهد شاخص­های ایزوویست که مبین کیفیت بصری گونه‌ها هستند، با شاخص‌های اسپیس‌میت، دارای رابطه همبستگی هستند. این امر به معنای اعتبار روش پیشنهادی در سنجش کیفیت بصری مجتمع‌های مسکونی بوده و مبین کاربرد نمودارهای اسپیس‌میت در کیفیت بصری مجتمع‌های مسکونی نیز هست. نتایج این تحقیق می­تواند به صورت بالقوه در طراحی سایت مجموعه­های مسکونی مورد استفاده قرار گرفته و متعاقب آن بر کیفیت طرح­های مسکونی مؤثر باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of Isovist analysis and sightlines in measuring visual quality of residential complexes (Case Study: Kermanshah City)

نویسندگان [English]

  • akram esfandiari 1
  • Abbas Tarkashvand 2

1 MA in architecture- University of Guilan

2 Assistant Professor Architecture Department School of Architecture and Environmental Design Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST)

چکیده [English]

Like any other construction, a residential complex contains perceptual load for citizens as well as space and physical entity. Visual quality plays an essential role in the formation of this perceptual load. Thus, the perceptual function of a residential complex is dependent to a large extent on visual quality, which is considered qualitative, so the analysis involves plenty of complication. Isovist analyses and sightlines provide an efficient means of analysis and assessment of visual quality through quantitative methods. A review of the theories and studies presented in the field of isovist tools indicates their significance in the analysis of constructed environments based on the visual perception of the audience. This research provides an explanation of the relationship between isovist indicators and spatial experience. On the other hand, concern for visual privacy, which is a major aspect of the visual quality of the environment, is related to overlook. Moreover, whether the residential space is overlooked by surrounding buildings is an essential factor in specification of the interior space quality of a residential unit.
The purpose of this study was to provide a method of using isovist tools and sightlines in the process of assessing the visual quality of residential complexes. The research was conducted in the city of Kermanshah, Iran. To this end, residential complexes located in Kermanshah were first typologized and categorized using analyses of form based on a quantitative method. For prevention of the inconsistency of the urban spaces around the complexes from functioning as an interfering factor, the shapes of the obtained types were then homogenized with the normalization method, and the spatial-physical quality of the normalized types was measured using Spacemate. In the next step, visual quality was assessed using isovist tools based on criteria including area, thrust angle, maximum line of sight, and circumscription, and quantitative data were extracted. Finally, the correlation between the data collected from the visual quality measurements and those obtained from the analysis of the spatial-physical quality of the types was examined and analyzed. The results demonstrated that each of the residential complex types involved specific visual quality indicators and sightlines that compared quantitatively and qualitatively with the other types. Moreover, the isovist indicators, which represented the visual quality of the types, correlated with their spatial indicators. This demonstrated the validity of the proposed method in isovist and sightline analysis for assessment of the visual quality of residential complexes, and illustrated the use of the Spacemate charts for that purpose. This research could not assign any of the types absolute or relative superiority in terms of visual quality; however, it analyzed the visual characteristics of each, thereby providing designers with a tool to include the desired visual qualities in their designs. The results of the research can be used potentially in the design of residential complex sites and, consequently, affect the quality of residential plans.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Isovist
  • Sightline
  • Residential Complex Type
  • Normalization

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