نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشجوی دکترای معماری- دانشگاه هنر اصفهان

چکیده

در بحث از بعد اجتماعی توسعه پایدار، تعاملات میان ساکنان و احساس امنیت از موضوعات مهم محسوب می‌شوند. بنابراین از یک سو در زمینه کشورهای در حال‌ توسعه، اثر محیط‌های مسکونی متراکم بر زندگی اجتماعی ساکنان همچنان نیازمند فهم و مطالعه بیشتری است و از سوی دیگر، بسته و محصور بودن، به عنوان یک عامل کالبدی، مؤثر بر شرایط اجتماعی در محیط‌های مسکونی شناخته می‌شود. از این‌ رو، هدف این پژوهش، بررسی رابطه میان تراکم ادراک‌ شده(بعد کمّی_کیفی تراکم)، احساس امنیت و تعاملات اجتماعی در قالب مدلی ساختاری و مقایسه سازوکار آنها در دو گونه مسکن محصور و غیرمحصور است. جامعه آماری، نمونه‌ای شامل590 نفر از ساکنان شش توسعه مسکونی، با تراکم‌ جمعیتی، تراکم‌ خالص مسکونی و پایگاه اجتماعی_اقتصادی مشابه ساکنان و شیوه طراحی متفاوت در شهر مشهد بودند. پس از کنترل پایایی ترکیبی عامل‌ها و روایی سازه، ابتدا با استفاده از آزمون تی، دو گونه مسکن به لحاظ متغیرهای احساس امنیت و تعاملات اجتماعی با یکدیگر مقایسه شدند. سپس روابط میان متغیرها از طریق مدل‌یابی معادلات ساختاریSEM مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. یافته‌های این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد، تفاوت معناداری میان دو گونه مسکن محصور و غیرمحصور به لحاظ تعاملات و احساس امنیت وجود دارد. براساس مدل‌های برازش‌ شده، در هر دو گروه مسکن، شرایط اجتماعی و امنیت در فضاهای باز مشترک، به تراکم ادارک‌ شده وابسته است. همچنین مقایسه مدل‌ها، حاکی از این مطلب است که نحوه اثر سازه‌های پژوهش در دو گونه مسکن محصور و غیرمحصور، متفاوت از یکدیگر بوده و فرآیندهای ادراکی_اجتماعی، به شکل متفاوتی عمل می‌کنند. در گونه محصور، ادراک تراکم، تعاملات اجتماعی و احساس امنیت در یک حلقه بازخورد، در طول زمان موجب ارتقا یا تضعیف یکدیگر می‌شوند. در حالی که در گونه مسکن غیر‌محصور احساس امنیت، پیش‌نیاز بروز تعاملات اجتماعی در فضاهای باز مشترک است و میان ادراک تراکم و تعاملات اجتماعی نقش واسطه‌ای دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Relationship between Perceived Density, Sense of Safety and Social Interactions in Gated and Non-gated Communities

نویسنده [English]

  • SEYYEDEH FATEMEH MOUSAVINIA

ARCHITECTURE, FERDOWSI UNIVERSITY

چکیده [English]

Adoption of strategies such as compact city design and urban intensification are claimed to positively affect the levels of social sustainability within the city. The sense of safety and social interactions within neighborhoods are also important factors affecting residents’ quality of life and community cohesion and sustainability. However, no research has been conducted on the relationship between density and social ties, and contradictory claims are made about the impacts of higher density on social life in residential environments. It has been demonstrated that people’s experience and perception of density could vary by its levels, and is inadequately expressed by any of its measures. Previous research has found that most of the negative associations of density concern the perceptions thereof, and perceived density is correlated with social interactions and the sense of safety in residential environments. The causal nature of the relationship, however, has not been established.
Furthermore, the constructed shapes, residential layouts, and hybrid land uses in a neighborhood and the relevant socio-demographic variables have been found in some studies to play important roles in achievement of social sustainability. A physical element known as gatedness is also believed to influence local community relationship networking and the sense of safety. Therefore, one of the most common strategies that developers adopt to establish communities that provide residents with closer-knit, safe places to live in involves gated communities: residential areas with access restricted through physical barriers such as fences, walls, security guardhouses, and electric gates.
Based on the social ecological model, this study highlighted the importance of evaluations and perceptions derived from communal spaces as motivators of social interaction, and demonstrated that the physical environment affects people’s thoughts, feelings, and beliefs about a local neighborhood through everyday contact and experience.
The aim of this study was to examine the structural relationships between perceived density, social interaction, and the sense of safety in gated and non-gated communities. For that purpose, six neighborhoods of the same net residential and population density and the same socioeconomic resident status but with different layouts in the city of Mashhad, Iran were selected for detailed investigation. A total of 590 randomly-selected residents completed a 5-point Likert-scale questionnaire, originating from the reviewed literature. The data analysis was made using SPSS 19 and Amos 23. The reliability of the questionnaire, developed specifically to elicit individuals’ perceptions, was demonstrated, and the latent constructs were validated through confirmatory factor analysis. Then, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to estimate the relationships between the predictors and outcomes.
It was found that social interaction was greater in gated communities than in non-gated ones. However, residents in non-gated residential areas exhibited greater senses of safety than those in gated communities. The results of SEM demonstrated that the direct effects of perceived density on social interaction were significant in both groups, and there was a negative causal relationship between perception of density and social interaction. In gated communities, the non-recursive model suggested a feedback loop where a decrease in perceived density would increase social interaction, thereby increasing the sense of safety, in turn further decreasing perceived density. In non-gated communities, however, the sense of safety was influenced by perceived density and thus correlated with social interaction as an independent factor. This finding indicated the mediating role of the sense of safety in the relationship between perceived density and social interaction in non-gated communities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Density
  • Sense of safety
  • Social interaction
  • Gated community
  • Non-gated community
  • SEM

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