نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

مدرس گروه شهرسازی دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

چکیده

چارچوب فرایند پژوهش برنامه­ریزی برای به کارگیری روش نظریه مبنایی برساخت­گرا، پیوستار عناصر هستی­شناسی، معرفت­شناسی، روش­شناسی و روش را چگونه تعریف می­کند؟ این مقاله با هدف تمهید پایه­ منطقی برای کاربرد روش نظریه مبنایی برساخت­گرا در مطالعات برنامه­ریزی شهری و منطقه­ای به نگارش درآمده است. نظریه مبنایی با قرار گرفتن در چارچوب رهیافت اِمیک در پژوهش­های برنامه­ریزی، آن­ را از نقطه­نظر مشارکت کننده توصیف کرده و دیدگاهی از این که مشارکت­کنندگان چگونه آن­ را به مثابه امری واقعی و معنادار درک و قبول می­کنند، تولید می­کند. با تشخیص اهمیت داستان­ها و روایت­های عاملان درگیر در فرایندهای برنامه­ریزی، رمزگشایی از ارزش­های زیرکار و ادراکات مشترک در کاربست­های برنامه­ریزی ممکن می­شود. در این روش رویکرد پژوهشگر صراحتاً مبتنی بر این فرض است که هر گونه تفسیر نظری، یک تصویر تفسیری از جهان مورد مطالعه را پیشنهاد می­دهد نه یک تصویر دقیق از آن. در همین راستا، کاربست این روش مطابق با فرایند پیشنهادی چارمز توصیف و تحلیل شده است. داده­های تحلیل عناصر ذهنی پژوهش­شوندگان به واسطه روش مصاحبه­های عمیق نیمه_ساختار­ یافته فراهم شده و پس از انجام مراحل پیش کدگذاری اعم از گردآوری داده­ها و پیاده­سازی آنها­، مرحله تحلیل داده­ها و طیف­های سه­گانه کدگذاری( کدگذاری اولیه، کدگذاری متمرکز و  کدگذاری نظری) تشریح شده­اند.  افزون بر آن، فرایندهای انگاشت­پردازی نظریه مبنایی برساخت­گرا با به کار بردن یادداشت­نگاری و اشباع نظری نیز مورد تأکید قرار گرفته­اند. شناخت این رویکرد در میان سایر رویکردهای نظریه مبنایی و فرایند متواتر قابل کاربرد آن در پژوهش­های برنامه­ریزی به واسطه روش توصیفی_تحلیلی برخاسته از مطالعات گسترده نظری و تجربه عملی به ­کارگیری این فرایند با روش پیمایشی بوده است.این مهم در انتظام برنامه­ریزی شهری و منطقه­ای در ردیابی درک برنامه­ریزان از برآمدهای برنامه­ریزی، محیط برنامه­ریزی و بستر اجتماعی و نیز با توجه به ماهیت مکان­مند نظریه برنامه­ریزی، در عمل­آوری نظریه برنامه­ریزی محتوایی و میانی مرتبط با موقعیت خاص قابلیت کاربرد دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Constructivist Grounded Theory Method Application in Urban and Regional Planning Researches

نویسنده [English]

  • pouya Joudi

. Lecturer, Architecture and Urbanism faculty, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran

چکیده [English]

How does the framework of the planning research process define the elements of the ontology, epistemology, methodology, and methods continuum to employ a constructivist grounded theory method? This paper aimed to provide a rationale for use of such a method for urban and regional planning research. Embedded within the framework of the emic approach in planning research, the theory describes it from the participants’ points of view, generating a perspective on how they recognize it as a real, meaningful process. The underlying values and shared perceptions can be deciphered in urban and regional planning applications through recognition of the significance of stories and narratives on the factors involved in planning processes. In a constructivist grounded theory method, the researcher’s approach is explicitly based on the assumption that any theoretical interpretation suggests an interpretive image of the universe under investigation rather than a detailed image thereof. Constructivist inquiry begins with experience and how members construct it. In other words, constructivists recognize their interpretation of the studied phenomenon as a construction, a step forward in participants’ understanding of meaning. The application of the theory was described and analyzed in this research in accordance with the process proposed by Charmaz. The data for analysis of the participants’ mental elements were provided through semi-structured in-depth interviews. After the pre-coding steps, including data collection and implementation, were taken, the data analysis stage and the three phases of coding, i.e. initial coding, focused coding, and, finally, theoretical coding, were delineated.Furthermore, the conceptualization processes in constructivist grounded theory were highlighted using memo-writing and theoretical saturation. The recognition of this approach among those adopted to the theory and its successive process, which is applicable to planning research with a descriptive-analytic method, has resulted from extensive theoretical studies and the practical experience of applying the process  as a survey. It can be concluded that the constructivist grounded theory method can be applied to arrangement of urban and regional planning, detection of planners’ understanding of the outcomes of planning, the planning environment, and the social context. Given the spatial nature of planning theories, middle-range content planning associated with a particular situation is applicable in their practice. In the present study, the scholar’s philosophical position was realized through adoption of constructivism. The ontological and epistemological bases of the research—the relativist ontological position and the subjectivist epistemological position—are consistent with the research purposes, plan, and methodology. The constructivist grounded theory was focused here on the measures, interactions, and social processes of planners.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • constructivist grounded theory
  • urban and regional planning research
  • qualitative research
  • methodology

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