اصول، ابعاد و متغیرهای رضایتمندی سکونتی در برنامه ریزی مسکن مهر (نمونه موردی: شهرک مهرگان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکدۀ هنر دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دکتری برنامه ریزی شهری، سازمان برنامه و بودجه خراسان رضوی

3 استادیار پژوهش جهاددانشگاهی و عضوگروه پژوهشی برنامه ریزی شهری

چکیده

  مسکن به عنوان یک نیاز همواره در جوامع مختلف مطرح بوده است. در ایران نیز، سیاست های مختلفی برنامه ریزی و اجرا شده است. یکی از این سیاست ها، برنامه مسکن مهر است. علی رغم آنکه مسکن مهر به عنوان یکی از بزرگترین و پربحث ترین طرح های ملی در جهت حل مشکل مسکن گروه های کم درآمد ارائه شده است، مشکلات اجتماعی و به عبارتی نارضایتی ساکنان را همراه داشته است. لذا پرسش اصلی این است که با بکارگیری چه اصولی می‌توان رضایتمندی ساکنان را ارتقاء داد و مانع از بروز مشکلات در این محدوده ها شد. مقاله حاضر با هدف تحلیل برنامه ریزی مسکن مهر و سنجش رضایتمندی سکونتی در شهرک مهرگان تدوین شده است. همچنین به شناسایی اصول، ابعاد و متغیرهای آن می پردازد. بررسی ها طبق روش تحقیق بنیادی، تحلیل قیاسی و استنتاجی صورت پذیرفته است و در ادامه متغیرهای دستیابی به رضایتمندی سکونتی در مسکن مهر در قالب پرسشنامه و از ساکنان مورد نظرسنجی قرار گرفتند. سپس، اطلاعات حاصل با استفاده از روش های آماری تحلیل عاملی، تحلیل رگرسیونی، تحلیل معادلات ساختاری مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند و از نرم افزارهای Lisrel، Spss و Smart PLS استفاده شده است. در این میان "جامع‌نگری" به عنوان یکی از اصول مهم معرفی شده که به موجب ایجاد نگاهی یکپارچه به مسائل، از تمرکز صرف به بخشی از مشکلات جلوگیری کرده است. از سوی دیگر "توسعة اجتماع‌مبنا" موجب می‌شود تا با حضور ساکنان در تمام فرآیند مسکن مهر، ضمن بهره‌‌مندی از دارایی‌های جامعة محلی و سرمایه‌های اجتماعی، اقدامات مسکن مهر به دیدگاه‌های ساکنان نزدیک شده و در نهایت رضایتمندی آن ها حاصل شود، به عبارت دیگر دو اصل جامع‌نگری و توسعة اجتماع‌مبنا از اصول مهم در سیاست های مسکن مهر می‌باشند که در کنار اصل "فرآیندمحوری"، می‌توان انتظار رضایتمندی ساکنان را از نتایج آن داشت. در انتها تاثیر اصل توسعه اجتماع مبنا بر اصل جامع نگری مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Principles, dimensions and variables concerning the residential satisfaction in Mehr housing project (the case study of Mehregan town)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mojtaba Rafieian 1
  • shiva Ajilian 2
  • Aref Ahgasafari 3
چکیده [English]

Objectives: Housing has always been considered a need in different societies.This need more than its individual aspects, is considered a collective need. With the advent of the industrial revolution which was accmanied by unprecedented population growth and increasing urbanization , the issue of providing housing for people in need who were sent to cities in the aftermath of the Industrial Revolution was introduced and by the expansion of its dimensions became more important to include in government intervention programmes. . Thus, the housing problem, as a common issue in most of the world’s cities, is how to connect the creation and planning of  cities with different economic, political, social and cultural contexts. Nowadays, the limited resources of the government and rapid increase in demand for housing do not provide housing for all members of society. Hence, the framework of national development goals, especially the prioritized economic and social goals specify the housing share of low-income groups. In Iran, different policies have been planned and executed. One of these policies is the “Mehr Housing Plan”. Despite being the greatest and most highly discussed national plan proposed for solving the housing problems of low-income groups, it has caused social problems and  residents’ dissatisfaction. “Mehr Housing” project focuses attention on determining role of the land price in housing prices and the action to eliminate this variable, controlling the price of housing in this way, and facilitating access of vulnerable people to suitable housing, but it has ignored a set of key issues. Therefore, the main question is how to improve residents’ satisfaction and/or what principles to employ in the policies for satisfying housing of low-income groups in order to improve residents’ satisfaction and to prevent problems in these districts. Therefore, this research aims at analyzing the policies for planning low-income group housing (Mehr Housing Plan) by measuring residential satisfaction in the Mehregan Town, Mashhad and identifying its principles, sizes and variables.Therefore, surveyswere conducted according to fundamental research method and inductive and deductive analysis. Questionnaires were then used for conducting an opinion poll on the variables to achieve residential satisfaction in the Mehr Housing Plan. The questionnaire data was analyzed using factor analysis methods, regression analysis, and structural equations modeling. LISREL 8.5, PSS, and Smart PLS softwares were used.
Findings :a “holistic view” was introduced as one of the major principles in the residential satisfaction in the Mehr Housing Plan which prevented concentration on only some parts of the problems using an integrated view to problems. On the other hand, “community-driven development” allows taking advantage of local community assets and social capitals through the presence of residents in all Mehr Housing processes. This way, the measures of Mehr Housing become close to the residents’ views and finally their satisfaction is gained. In other words, the “holistic view” and community-driven development” principles are among the major policies of Mehr Housing policies; if they are considered as a basis for the measures of Mehr Housing along with “process-orientation” principle, residents will be satisfied with its outcome.
Results: Finally, the model for communication method of the principles are depicted and proposed. Finally, the influence of “community-driven development” based on the principle of a “holistic view” is discussed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mehr housing
  • Principles
  • residential satisfaction
  • Mehregan town
1.        Baiden.p.Arkuo.luginahh.Aiedu.AB(2011).An assessmentof residents' housing satisfaction and coping in Accra. Ghana, Journal of PublicHealth 19, 29-37.

2.        Boshagh M.R, salarvand E. Tabrizi J(2012), Analytical on housingindicators sustainability in rural area case study: Silakhor Sharghirural district –Azna Township, Geography and EnvironmentalPlanning Journal 25th Year, Vol. 54, No.2, Summer 2014.

3.        Caldieron. J (2011). Residental satisfaction in la perla informal neighbourhood, San Juan. Puerto Rico. Oida International Journal of Sustainable Development 2l 1 77-84.

4.        Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., and Rodgers, W. L (1996). "The Quality of American Life: Perceptions, Evaluations and Satisfactions,New York": Russel Sage Foundation.

5.        Carp. F. M, & Carp. A (1982). Perceived environmental quality of neighbourhoods: Development of assessment scales and then relation to age and gender. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 2. 295-312.

6.        Duncan, T (1971). Measuring housing quality. Occasional Paper 20, Center for Urban and Regional Studies, University of Birmingham.

7.        Enosh. N., Leslau. A, Shacham. J. (1984) Residential quality assessment: a conceptual modal and empirical test. Social Indicators Research 14 453- 76.

8.        Farnahad Consulting Engineers,(2008), Mashad Majmue shahri, Volume XI , strategies and policies. [in Persian]

9.        Galster, George. Hesser, Garry (1981), "Residential satisfaction: Compositional and Contextual Correlates, J. Environment and Behavior", Vol.13, No.6.735-58.

10.    Golubchikov. O, Badyina. A (2012), Sustainable Housing forsustainable cities. A policyframework for developing countries, UNHABITAT Nairobi.

11.    Hourihan. K (1984). Residential satisfaction. neighbourhood attributes. and personal characteristics: an exploratory analysis in Cork. Ireland. Environment and Planning 16 425-36

12.    John. C.,Clark. F (1984). Race and social class differences in the characteristics desired in residential neighbourhoods. Social Science Quarterly 65 803-13.

13.    Kaitilla, S (1993). Satisfaction with public housing in Papua New Guinea: The case of West Taraka housing scheme, Environment and Behavior 25 514-45.

14.    Lansing. J.B. and G. Hendricks (1967), Living Patterns and Attitiudes in the Detroit Region. k, poyfrwvnnml Detroit regional Transportation and Land Use Study.

15.    Lee. B. A. & Guest. A. M (1983). Determinants of neighbourhood satisfaction: A metropolitan-level analysis. The Sociological Quarterly. 242. 287-303.

16.    MeCrae, R. R (2005).Terracciano. A,. & 79 Members of the Personality Profiles of Cultures Project.. Personality profiles of cultures: Aggregate personality traits. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 89, 407-425.

17.    McCray, J.W., &  Day, D. D (1977). 'Housing values. aspirations. and satisfactions as indicators of housing needs', Home Economics Research Journal 5. pp. 244-254.

18.    Miller. F. D., S. Tseraberis, G. P. Malia. & D. Greg (1980). Neighbourhood satisfaction among urban. dwellers. Journal of Social Issues 363. 101-117.

19.    Ministry of Culture,(1989),Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran , Ministry of Culture. [in Persian]

20.    Mohit, Ma. M. Ibrahim and YR. Rashid (2010). Assessment of residential satisfaction in newly designed public low-cost housing in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Habitat Int., 34: 18-27. DOI 10.1016/j.

21.    Mustapha.F.H.Al-fed, A. Wild, S (1995). A model for assessing the effectiveness of public housing in Sana'a Republic of Yemen. Constriction, Management and Economics 13 457-465.

22.    Poorjohari,A.,(2010). ” Mehr Housing , city or impose broad unscheduled grows with it” , Abadi Journal, No. 69, Winter,14-18.[in Persian]

23.    Poormohammadi,M.,(2006). ” Housing planning” , Samt Publishers, Tehran.[in Persian]

24.    Poormohammadi,M.,Asadi,A.,(2013).”Evaluation Zanjan Mehr housing project”, Tahghighat karbordi olum joghrafiaee Journal, No. 33, Summer,171-192.[in Persian]

25.    Poormohamadi,M., Sadremoosavi,M., Abedini,A., (2012). ” An analysis of government housing policies with an emphasis on economic development , social and cultural”, Motaleat shahri Journal, 34-43.[in Persian]

26.    Rafian,M.,Masudi rad,M.,Rezaei,M.,(2014). ” Measure residents ' satisfaction with the quality of housing residence , Case Zahedan Mehr” , Joghrafia & Amayesh Journal, 135-150.[in Persian]

27.    Rashidnahal,M.,Rezaei,H., Kariman,M.,(2008). ”Mehr Housing cooperatives stamp applicants and members must know what”, Tehran, Paygan Publishers. [in Persian]

28.    Rohe, W.; Mouw, S (1991). The Politics of Relocation: The Moving of the Crest Street Community. Journal of the American Planning Association 57: 57.68.

29.    Salleh, A. G (2008). Neighbourhood factors in private low-cost housing in Malaysia. Habitat International 32485-93

30.    Seyfodin,F.,(1992). ”Minimum housing”, Seminar Proceedings 1373 , published by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development,11-13.[in Persian]

31.    Schwartz, A.F(2006),Housing Policy in the United States: AnIntroduction. Routledge, Taylor & Francis group.

32.    Sendich, Emina(2006), Planning and urban standards, Newjersy.

33.    Turkoglu, H (1997). Residents’ satisfaction of housing environments : the case of Istanbul, Turkey, Landscape and Urban Planning 39 55-67.

34.    Van Poll, R (1997). "The Perceived Quality of the Urban Residential Environment A Multi-Attribute Evaluation". Gronigen University Press.

 

35.    Varaday, D.P(1983). Determinants of residential mobility, Journal of the American Planning Association 49,184-99.

1.        Baiden.p.Arkuo.luginahh.Aiedu.AB(2011).An assessmentof residents' housing satisfaction and coping in Accra. Ghana, Journal of PublicHealth 19, 29-37.

2.        Boshagh M.R, salarvand E. Tabrizi J(2012), Analytical on housingindicators sustainability in rural area case study: Silakhor Sharghirural district –Azna Township, Geography and EnvironmentalPlanning Journal 25th Year, Vol. 54, No.2, Summer 2014.

3.        Caldieron. J (2011). Residental satisfaction in la perla informal neighbourhood, San Juan. Puerto Rico. Oida International Journal of Sustainable Development 2l 1 77-84.

4.        Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., and Rodgers, W. L (1996). "The Quality of American Life: Perceptions, Evaluations and Satisfactions,New York": Russel Sage Foundation.

5.        Carp. F. M, & Carp. A (1982). Perceived environmental quality of neighbourhoods: Development of assessment scales and then relation to age and gender. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 2. 295-312.

6.        Duncan, T (1971). Measuring housing quality. Occasional Paper 20, Center for Urban and Regional Studies, University of Birmingham.

7.        Enosh. N., Leslau. A, Shacham. J. (1984) Residential quality assessment: a conceptual modal and empirical test. Social Indicators Research 14 453- 76.

8.        Farnahad Consulting Engineers,(2008), Mashad Majmue shahri, Volume XI , strategies and policies. [in Persian]

9.        Galster, George. Hesser, Garry (1981), "Residential satisfaction: Compositional and Contextual Correlates, J. Environment and Behavior", Vol.13, No.6.735-58.

10.    Golubchikov. O, Badyina. A (2012), Sustainable Housing forsustainable cities. A policyframework for developing countries, UNHABITAT Nairobi.

11.    Hourihan. K (1984). Residential satisfaction. neighbourhood attributes. and personal characteristics: an exploratory analysis in Cork. Ireland. Environment and Planning 16 425-36

12.    John. C.,Clark. F (1984). Race and social class differences in the characteristics desired in residential neighbourhoods. Social Science Quarterly 65 803-13.

13.    Kaitilla, S (1993). Satisfaction with public housing in Papua New Guinea: The case of West Taraka housing scheme, Environment and Behavior 25 514-45.

14.    Lansing. J.B. and G. Hendricks (1967), Living Patterns and Attitiudes in the Detroit Region. k, poyfrwvnnml Detroit regional Transportation and Land Use Study.

15.    Lee. B. A. & Guest. A. M (1983). Determinants of neighbourhood satisfaction: A metropolitan-level analysis. The Sociological Quarterly. 242. 287-303.

16.    MeCrae, R. R (2005).Terracciano. A,. & 79 Members of the Personality Profiles of Cultures Project.. Personality profiles of cultures: Aggregate personality traits. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 89, 407-425.

17.    McCray, J.W., &  Day, D. D (1977). 'Housing values. aspirations. and satisfactions as indicators of housing needs', Home Economics Research Journal 5. pp. 244-254.

18.    Miller. F. D., S. Tseraberis, G. P. Malia. & D. Greg (1980). Neighbourhood satisfaction among urban. dwellers. Journal of Social Issues 363. 101-117.

19.    Ministry of Culture,(1989),Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran , Ministry of Culture. [in Persian]

20.    Mohit, Ma. M. Ibrahim and YR. Rashid (2010). Assessment of residential satisfaction in newly designed public low-cost housing in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Habitat Int., 34: 18-27. DOI 10.1016/j.

21.    Mustapha.F.H.Al-fed, A. Wild, S (1995). A model for assessing the effectiveness of public housing in Sana'a Republic of Yemen. Constriction, Management and Economics 13 457-465.

22.    Poorjohari,A.,(2010). ” Mehr Housing , city or impose broad unscheduled grows with it” , Abadi Journal, No. 69, Winter,14-18.[in Persian]

23.    Poormohammadi,M.,(2006). ” Housing planning” , Samt Publishers, Tehran.[in Persian]

24.    Poormohammadi,M.,Asadi,A.,(2013).”Evaluation Zanjan Mehr housing project”, Tahghighat karbordi olum joghrafiaee Journal, No. 33, Summer,171-192.[in Persian]

25.    Poormohamadi,M., Sadremoosavi,M., Abedini,A., (2012). ” An analysis of government housing policies with an emphasis on economic development , social and cultural”, Motaleat shahri Journal, 34-43.[in Persian]

26.    Rafian,M.,Masudi rad,M.,Rezaei,M.,(2014). ” Measure residents ' satisfaction with the quality of housing residence , Case Zahedan Mehr” , Joghrafia & Amayesh Journal, 135-150.[in Persian]

27.    Rashidnahal,M.,Rezaei,H., Kariman,M.,(2008). ”Mehr Housing cooperatives stamp applicants and members must know what”, Tehran, Paygan Publishers. [in Persian]

28.    Rohe, W.; Mouw, S (1991). The Politics of Relocation: The Moving of the Crest Street Community. Journal of the American Planning Association 57: 57.68.

29.    Salleh, A. G (2008). Neighbourhood factors in private low-cost housing in Malaysia. Habitat International 32485-93

30.    Seyfodin,F.,(1992). ”Minimum housing”, Seminar Proceedings 1373 , published by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development,11-13.[in Persian]

31.    Schwartz, A.F(2006),Housing Policy in the United States: AnIntroduction. Routledge, Taylor & Francis group.

32.    Sendich, Emina(2006), Planning and urban standards, Newjersy.

33.    Turkoglu, H (1997). Residents’ satisfaction of housing environments : the case of Istanbul, Turkey, Landscape and Urban Planning 39 55-67.

34.    Van Poll, R (1997). "The Perceived Quality of the Urban Residential Environment A Multi-Attribute Evaluation". Gronigen University Press.

35.    Varaday, D.P(1983). Determinants of residential mobility, Journal of the American Planning Association 49,184-99.