نقش راهبرد توسعه شهری (CDS) در مدیریت توسعه گردشگری (نمونه موردی: جزیره هرمز)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشگاه تهران ، دانشکده جغرافیا

2 استادیار دانشگاه تهران ، دانشکده جغرافیا

3 دانشگاه تهران - پردیس کیش

چکیده

گسترش شهرنشینی و مسائل و مشکلات خاص زندگی شهری، بیش از پیش ضرورت توجه همه جانبه به راهبردها و راه حل های سودمند برای بهینه سازی زندگی ساکنان شهرها را روشن ساخته است. در میان موضوعاتی مانند محیط زیست شهری، ایمنی شهری،  برنامه ریزی شهری و  توسعه شهری، یک عامل بسیار مهم مدیریت شهری است. استراتژی توسعه شهری، یک ابزار جدید برای کمک به توسعه و برای پاسخ به تغییرات جزر و مدی فراگیر جهانی و کاهش فقر شهری و توسعه اقتصاد محلی می‌باشد. بیشتر استراتژی‌های توسعه شهری به عنوان یک فرآیند مشارکتی، سه هدف اصلی: بهبود مدیریت شهری، رشد اقتصادی و کاهش فقر شهری را دنبال می کنند. توسعه گردشگری یکی از ابعاد توسعه ملی است که در کشورهای مختلف چه به لحاظ اقتصادی و چه به لحاظ فرهنگی، اجتماعی و سیاسی حائز اهمیت است و یکی از ابزارهای مهم استراتژی توسعه شهری می باشد. هدف این پژوهش، بررسی نقش موثر مدیریت در استراتژی توسعه شهری، برای دستیابی به توسعه گردشگری و رونق اقتصادی و اجتماعی جزیره هرمز می باشد. روش تحقیق بر مبنای روشهای توصیفی و  تحلیلی و کاربردی است که با استفاده از مطالعات کتابخانه ای و مطالعات میدانی  ( مصاحبه و پرسشنامه) انجام گرفته و نتایج حاصل از آن با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS و با آزمون کای اسکوئر تک نمونه ای محاسبه شده است و از تحلیل SWOT برای شناسایی قوت ها و ضعف ها، فرصت ها و تهدیدها و از مدل استراتژیک SOAR برای تدوین استراتژی توسعه و تشریح قوت ها، فرصت ها، آرمانها و نتایج استفاده شده است. توسعه گردشگری در دنیا، به کارآمدی نظام مدیریتی، تقویت زیر ساختها و بهبود ظرفیت های لازم نیاز دارد. یکی از مهمترین عوامل موثر در توسعه گردشگری در هر منطقه، چگونگی مدیریت آن است. نتایج بدست آمده نشان میدهد توسعه گردشگری در جزیره هرمز با وجود جاذبه های تاریخی و طبیعی به دلیل نداشتن امکانات خدماتی و رفاهی و زیر ساخت های لازم و مدیریت صحیح، به کندی پیش می رود و چشم انداز آن بر پایه تبدیل جزیره هرمز به منطقه آزاد، در یک نظام مدیریتی کارآمد با هدف توسعه گردشگری و رونق اقتصادی و اجتماعی منطقه در سه حوزه گردشگری تاریخی، فرهنگی و اکوتوریسم - ژئوتوریسم قرار دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The role of City Development Strategy in tourism development management (Case study: Hormoz Island)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Pour Ahmad 1
  • Alireza Darban Astaneh 2
  • shiva pourghorban 3
3 no
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Urbanization development, issues and specific problems in urban life have more than in the past made clear the global attention to strategies and useful solutions for optimizing the life of urban residents. Amongst such topics as urban environment, urban safety, urban planning and urban development, urban management is a very crucial factor. City development strategy is a new tool to help development and it can be used for comprehensive and global tidal changes response management, urban poverty reduction and  local economy development. Most strategies of urban development as a participatory process follow three main objectives: improving urban management, urban economic growth and poverty reduction. Tourism development is one aspect of national development which in various countries has a great role of importance in economic, cultural, social and political aspects and is an important tool for city development strategy.
The aim of this research is to investigate the role of  city development strategy in city planning management to gain tourism development and economic and social prosperity on Hormoz Island. To achieve this goal, the following questions were raised:
1-      Can strategic planning guarantee the development of Hormoz Island?
2-      Can union of Hormoz Island and Qeshm Free Zone with an integrated management of Qeshm Free Zone Organization affect tourism development and prosperity of Hormoz Island? 
 
The methodology of this research was based on descriptive, analytical and applied methods using laboratory investigation and field work method (interview and questionnaire forms) and findings were calculated by the use of SPSS software and chi square test. In addition, SWOT analysis was used for determination of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, and the SOAR strategic model was used for strategic development, strength description, opportunities, aspirations result outcomes.
The development of tourism in the world needs an effectivemanagement system, strong and advanced infrastructure and improvement of required capacities. One of the most important factors in the tourism development in each region is management knowhow.
The results show that tourism development on Hormoz Island despite historical and natural attractions has had slow progressdue to a lack of required infrastructures, good management, services and social welfare. The future outlook of tourism on Hormoz Island is based on its becoming Free Zone in an efficient management system with the goal of economic prosperity and social development of the region in the three fields of historical, cultural and ecotourism – geotourism.
Document of future perspective:
Shores and Islands of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, lying on natural, cultural and historical attractions, are some of the most important locations for tourism in the region. The Fourth Economic Programme for the Persian Gulf Coast and Islands focused on tourism as tourism can be developed to create jobs, earn foreign exchange and regional development.
It is recommended that in preparing a document for future visions, Qeshm Free Zone Organization should take advantage of the pristine natural, historical and cultural capacities of Hormoz Island for the development of the tourism industry and attract more tourists to this region through Hormoz Island economic, social and tourism sectors development in the three areas of historical, cultural and ecotourism - geo-tourism. to Using comparative and competitive advantages in terms of geographical location,in addition to the conservation and management of natural and cultural resources, favorable conditions for improving quality of life will be provided. Moreover, by establishing the appropriate infrastructure for tourism, attracting foreign investment, establishment of hotels and tourism facilities, as well as the creation of a competitive market with the Persian Gulf countries in the tourism industry, Hormoz and Qeshm Islands would be introduced as a gateway for tourism in southern Iran and the Persian Gulf.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • City development strategy
  • tourism development
  • Urban planning managenment
  • Swot
  • SOAR
  • Akhavan Saraf, Ahmad & Hosseini, Asaad (2013). “The role of city management in sustainable tourism development in Esfahan”, Conference on sustainable architecture and city development, http://www.civilca.com/Paper-SAUD01-SAUD01_289.html. [in Persian]
  • Amirkabiri, Alireza (2014). Strategic management, Negahe-Danesh publication. [in Persian]
  • Amini, Mohammad Taghee & Abassi, Mohammad Reza & Pirali, Ali Reza (2011). “Strategic development of tourism industry of Qeshm free zone using SWOT’, Journal of management process and development, No.:76. [in Persian]
  • Ashrafi, Yousef (2009). “ CDS a new Strategy in urban planning in Analytical approach”, Urban management quarterly, No.:23, 89-105. [in Persian]
  • Ashrafi, Yousef & Teimouri, Iraj & Farhoudi, Rahmatollah & Jafari Mehrabadi, Maryam & Salarvandian, Fatemeh (2010). “City development strategy proper foundation for using cooperative planning”, Scientific Journal of Geography and planning, Tabriz University, 15th Year, No.:33, 1-33. [in Persian]
  • Azimi Amoli, Jalal (2014). Rural Governance, Samt Publication. [in Persian]
  • Cities Alliance (2006). Cities without slums.
  • Cities Alliance (2006). Guide to City Development Strategies, Washington , DC. USA.
  • Dehdari Ebrahimi, Zahra (2011). “The Role of Islamic Azad University in Iran's cultural development”, regional conference on Islamic Azad University Services, Dehdasht Branch, 440-445. Retrieved from, www.civilca.com/paper. [in Persian]
  • Divsalar, Asadollah & Tavakoli, Maysam (2013). “The role of city management in sustainable tourism development”, 6th national conference city planning and management, Mashahd. [in Persian]
  • Golkar, Kourosh & Azadi, Jalal (2005). “What is City Development Strategy CDS’? Shahr Negar publication, No.:30, 59-79. [in Persian]
  • Haghighat, Farzaneh & Mahmoudian, Vahid & Chitgar, Sakineh (2014). “Outlook to new city development strategy (CDS) in city development strategy process in Iran”, 1st conference on new horizons in empowerment and sustainable urban and rural development. [in Persian]
  • Hataminejad, Hossein & Faraji Malaee, Amin (2011). “Feasibility study on implementation city development strategic plans (CDS) in Iran”, Quarterly for studies and urban and regional researches, 2nd Year , No:8, 55-76. [in Persian]
  • Hekmatnia, Hassan (2011). Application of modeling in geography, Elm Novin publication. [in Persian]
  • Hosseini, Ali & Pourzal, Maryam (2013). “The role of city management in sustainable tourism development of Nowshahr”, Journal of urban ecology researches, 4th Year, No.:2. [in Persian]
  • Hosseinzadeh Dalir, Karim & Sadr mousavi, Mirsatar & Heydari Chiyaneh, Rahim (2011). “An introduction to new city development strategy (CDS) in Iran in urban planning process with emphasis on master plan challenges in Iran”, scientific quarterly of geography space, 11th Year, No.:36, 173-210. [in Persian]
  • Jafari, Vahid (2010). Investigation and analysis of city management strategy in Chenaran with city development strategy approach (CDS), Thesis of Master of art in Gepgraphy and city management, Ferdousi University of Mashhad. [in Persian]
  • Kardar, Saeed & Rahmani, Mohammad & Mola Aghajanzadeh, Sare (2009). “City development strategy design (CDS), a strategic approach and innovative in design management and urban planning”, strategy journal, 18th Year, No.:52, 183-199. [in Persian]
  • Khalil-Abadi, Hossein (2011). City Development Strategy, Mahkame publication, Tehran. [in Persian]
  • Khavarian Garmsir, Amir Reza & Stavros, J. & Alian, Mehdi (2012). “Strategic planning of urban tourism development using SOAR model”, Planning and spatial preparation, 17th course, No.:3. [in Persian]
  • Khavarian Garmsir, Amir Reza & Rezaee, Mohammad Reza (2013). “Strategic planning of Yazd industrial town using SOAR model”, geographical studies of arid zones, 5th course, No.:18, 77-94. [in Persian]
  • Maleki, Jafar (2010). “An introduction to city development strategy (CDS), advantages and problems”, 2nd conference on city management and planning, Mashhad. [in Persian]
  • Mehdizadeh, Javad (2013). City development strategy planning, Ministry of road and housing, Armanshahr publication. [in Persian]
  • Mike Morrison. (2009). SWOT or SOAR? – Strategy and tools in business.
  • Mohammadifar, Majid & Alavinasab, Hashem (2014). “The role of city management in suatainable tourism development in Mashahd”, 6th national conference on city planning and management, Mashahd. [in Persian]
  • Moradi, Fariba (2011). An outlook to strategic management, Industrial management organization publication. [in Persian]
  • Pourghorban, Shiva (2014). Impressive factors of historical and cultural tourism in Hormoz Island, Master of Art thesis in Geography and tourism planning, Tehran University, Kish Campus. [in Persian]
  • Rafiyan, Mojtaba & Shahin rad, Mahnoush (2008). “City Development Strategy toward fulfilling city development strategy (with emphasis on Kerman strategic plan)”, social studies magazine of Iran, 2nd course, No.:2. [in Persian]
  • Saeednia, Ahmad (2013). Green book of municipalities in city management, 11th Volume, Country organization of municipalities’ publication. [in Persian]
  • Sheikhi, Abdollah (2014). City development strategies of Piranshahr with the approach of CDS, a Master of Art thesis in geography and urban planning, Tehran University. [in Persian]
  • Stan.Capela@heartshare.com, Ariana.Saunders@heartshare.com.
  • Stavros, J. & Cooperrider, D. (2003). A New Framework for Strategic planning: Inspiration to SOAR.
  • Stavros, J. & M&Hinrichs, G. (2009). The Thin Book of SOAR: Building Strengths-bases strategy.
  • Taghvaee, Masoud & Safarabadi, Aazam (2009). “The role of city management in sustainable tourism development of Kermanshah”, Geographical studies of arid areas magazine, 1st Year, No.:4. [in Persian]
  • Talyar, Maryam & Arabi, Yaser (2014). “City development strategy, a strategic approach in city management process”, 6th national conference on city planning and management, Mashahd. [in Persian]
  • Zarabi, Asghar & Saberi, Hamid (2010), Union of cities, Manual of city development strategy to improve the performance of the city, Isfahan University Press. [in Persian]
  • Ziari, Keramatollah (2014). CDS training booklets, Tehran University, Kish Campus. [in Persian]