ارزیابی سیاست های مسکن مهر در ایران و ارائه راهکارهایی جهت بهبود آن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد مدعو دانشگاه تهران و پژوهشگر دکتری شهرسازی دانشگاه تهران

2 کارشناس ارشد برنامه ریزی شهری- دانشگاه هنر تهران

چکیده

مسکن مهر موضوعی است که در سال‌های اخیر در راستای بهبود وضعیت مسکن از سوی دولت در دستور کار قرار گرفته است. این طرح با هدف تأمین مسکن برای اقشار کم درآمد جامعه، قیمت زمین را از قیمت مسکن حذف نموده و واحدهای مسکونی را به صورت اجاره‌ 99 ساله در اختیار آنها قرار داده است. این واحدها در کلانشهرها، شهرهای بزرگ و شهرهای میانی با شرایط و وضعیت گوناگونی در اختیار متقاضیان قرار گرفته است. مقاله حاضر بر آن است تا با مطالعه و ارزیابی سیاست‌های مسکن مهر در ایران، نقاط ضعف آن را دریافته و راهکارهایی برای رفع آنها و تدوین شرایط مسکن مطلوب ارائه دهد. به منظور دستیابی بدین مهم، ابتدا با مطالعه‌ ویژگی‌های مسکن ایران و جهان، شاخص‌هایی برای آن استخراج شده و  سپس 36 شاخص مسکن به کمک روش تحلیل عاملی به نُه عامل تقلیل یافته و درجه‌ تأثیرگذاری هر عامل بر سیاست‌های مسکن مهر مشخص شده است. در گام بعدی به کمک تحلیل رگرسیونی اثر عوامل مربوطه اندازه‌گیری شده و درجه اهمیت هر کدام محاسبه شده است. سپس اولویت اصلاح سیاست‌ها با توجه به این رتبه‌بندی تعیین گردیده است. نتایج به دست آمده گویای این است که عامل« طراحی و ساخت مسکن و محیط پیرامونی » در اولویت نخست، عامل « مکان و موقعیت » در اولویت دوم، «تسهیلات و خدمات» در اولویت سوم، «اندازه واحدهای مسکونی» اولویت چهارم، «پوشش گروه‌های نیازمند» اولویت پنجم، «توجیه اقتصادی» اولویت ششم، «تراکم» اولویت هفتم، «تأسیسات و تجهیزات زیربنایی» اولویت هشتم و «فضای شهری» در اولویت نهم اصلاحات قرار دارند. در نهایت بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده، راهکارهایی از قبیل بهبود وضعیت ساخت واحدهای مسکونی و نوع مصالح مورد استفاده، نظارت بر عملکرد پیمانکاران، تعبیه کاربری‌های آموزشی، بهداشتی، اداری و تجاری در پروژه‌های مسکن مهر و ... برای ارتقای پروژه‌های مسکن مهر تدوین شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Mehr Housing Policies in Iran and Presentation of Solutions for their Improvement

نویسندگان [English]

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  • n r 2
  • m r 2
چکیده [English]

Housing is a basic need and a major problem for most countries, especially in countries with rapidly growing urbanization like Iran. This factor along with the lack of a comprehensive housing plan and deficiencies in economic management have brought housing to the forefront of planning issues in this country as a complex and multi-dimensional issue. Up to now many programs have been put forward by the government regarding the state of housing in different parts of the country. Mehr Housing which is a country wide social housing program has recently been the main subject of governmental actions for housing improvements. As stated by the government, this program seeks to provide affordable houses for the low-income, improve the quality and quantity of housing production, improve the environmental conditions specifically in metropolitan areas, attract individual and small capital to the housing sector, control the rapid fluctuations in land value, manage the growth of peripheries and in general improve the social justice status regarding housing. This program aims to achieve the mentioned goals by omitting the price of land for low-income groups of society and give them housing units using a 99-year lease. These units which have different conditions and characteristics with an average area of 75 square meters have been given to applicants in metropolises, big cities and medium ones. Due to lack of vacant lands within metropolises and big cities, these housing complexes are regulated to be located in new towns surrounding urban regions and their construction is only possible through the formation of cooperatives consisting of low-income members. This article attempts to discern the deficiencies of this program and consequently propose solutions for suitable housing through evaluation of Mehr housing policies in Iran. In order to do so, first the existing literature concerning the characteristics of housing in Iran and other countries were reviewed and 36 housing indicators were extracted which were then grouped into 9 criteria using factor analysis. Then, the indicators’ degree of freedom regarding Mehr Housing policies were measured. This was followed by regression analysis which was used to measure the effect of the factors and their degree of significance. Next, the priority rank of the factors was calculated. This ranking shows the priorities regarding the modification of policies. Results indicate that the “scheme and construction of the house and the surrounding environment” factor is the first priority followed by “placement and position”, “facilities and services”, “size of the housing unit”, “coverage of the in-need groups”, “economic justifiability”, “density”, “infrastructure” and “urban space” in order mentioned. Finally, solutions for improving Mehr housing projects were proposed based on the indicators in each of these 9 criteria. For example, in the case of scheme and construction of the house and the surrounding environment, the strategies and solutions should deal with the following indicators: relationships between neighbors, quality of design and construction, the quality of materials, seismic resistance, design of pedestrian corridors, green spaces and environmentally safe waste disposal sites.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mehr housing
  • Housing Indicators
  • assessment
  • Factor Analysis
  • regression anlysis
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