تحلیل عوامل موثر بر تمرکز اشتغال غیر رسمی در شهر مرزی بانه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه هنر اصفهان

2 دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

مبادلات تجاری و مرزی شهر بانه تا پایان دهه شصت در مقیاس محدود انجام می‌شد اما در اولین سال‌های دهه هفتاد و با ایجاد بازارچه مرزی سیرانبند مبادلات تجاری  در این شهر رونق یافت. با افزایش ورود کالاهای قاچاق و  ورود سالانه میلیون ها مسافر به این شهر ،زمینه برای ایجاد مشاغل غیررسمی  مانند دست‌فروشی، اجاره سویت و... فراهم شد. اگرچه رونق تجارت در شهر بانه  اثرات مثبت همچون ایجاد  اشتغال ، افزایش توان اقتصادی و  ..  داشته است  با وجود این تمرکز شدید فعالیت های غیر رسمی در محدوده کوچکی از شهر بانه سبب ایجاد مشکلات فراونی از جمله ازدحام جمعیت ، آلودگی صوتی و هوا ،ترافیک وکاهش کیفیت زیستی در محدوده مرکزی  شده است  بنابراین به نظر می رسد انجام پژوهش‌های در جهت کاهش مشکلات ناشی از تمرکز فعالیت های غیر رسمی در محدوده مرکزی شهر بانه به عنوان محدوده ای که بیشترین تاثیر را از این فعالیت ها می پذیرد  ضروری می نماید.هدف از این پژوهش بررسی  عوامل موثر بر تمرکز اشتغال غیر رسمی در شهرهای مرزی بانه و  ارائه راهکارهای جهت کاهش اثرات منفی آن می باشد. در پژوهش حاضر با توجه به ابعاد گسترده مسأله ی تحقیق، از ابزارها و روش های متنوعی از قبیل  مصاحبه های میدانی با اهالی، فروشندگان و کارشناسان و تحلیل ثانویه استفاده شد.در این پژوهش  ابتدا با استفاده از شاخص های مستخرج از مبانی نظری تحقیق، محدوده تمرکز تجارت غیر رسمی در شهر بانه تعیین و تدقیق گردیده و تاثیرات تمرکز تجارت غیر رسمی بر این محدوده مورد بررسی قرار می گیرد .نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد نزدیکی به مرز و وجود تعلقات اجتماعی با آنسوی مرز ، کمبود فرصت‌های شغلی در منطقه و  قاچاق کالا از عوامل اصلی تمرکز اشتغال غیر رسمی  در این شهر می باشد. در نتیجه افزایش اشتغال غیر رسمی  سبب تغییرات کاربری از مسکونی به تجاری و رشد قارچ گونه مجتمع های تجاری  ،توسعه افقی و عمودی شهر ، افزایش مشاغل کاذب و ازدحام و ترافیک در شهر شده است. جهت کاهش مشکلات ناشی از تمرکز اشتغال غیر رسمی در شهر بانه  می توان به مدیریت  صحیح بازارچه ، تسریع در توسعه زیر ساخت ها، کاهش تمرکز مجتمع های تجاری و خدمات در هسته مرکزی و تهیه طرح ساماندهی ترافیک هسته مرکزی اشاره نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The analysis of effective factors on centralization of informal employment in the border city of Baneh

نویسندگان [English]

  • mahin nastaran 1
  • kamran rabiei 2
  • kamyar abdekhoda 1
1 art university of esfahan
2 art university of esfahan
چکیده [English]

Commercial and border exchanges in Baneh city were carried out on a limited scale until the late 1980s. However, from the early 1990s with the construction of the border market of Siranband, commercial exchanges prospered in this city. The increase in the import of smuggled goods and the number of tourists created a context for certain jobs like street vendors and house renting. Although commercial prosperity in Baneh has had positive effects such as the creation of employment and increased economic power, the intensive centralization of informal activities in a small area of the city has caused many problems including congestion, sound pollution, air pollution, heavy traffic and reduction in the quality of life in the central area of the city. Therefore, undertaking research to reduce problems resulting from centralization of informal activities in the central area of Baneh as an area that is most influenced by these activities seems necessary. This research attempts to study the factors influencing informal employment in the border city of Baneh and suggests solutions for decreasing its negative impacts. Considering the extensive aspects of the research question in this study, various tools and approaches including survey, interviews with residents, sellers and experts and secondary analysis approach were used. This study has benefited from GIS and AUTOCAD software for drawing the plans and SPSS and EXCEL software for describing the statistic data. In the first stage of the process, the indices of informal employment were extracted.  Secondly, after classifying the jobs under formal and informal categories, the distribution maps of formal and informal jobs were prepared. Then, by matching the maps, the exact area of centralization of informal trade was defined. Finally, the impacts of informal trade on this area were evaluated. The results indicate that being close to the border, the existence of social attachments beyond the border, lack of employment opportunities in the region, lack of customs laws and the smuggling of goods are the most important factors resulting in informal employment in this city. In conclusion, the increase in informal trade results in changes in land use from residential to commercial and growth of commercial complexes, horizontal and vertical development of the city, increasing the number of false jobs and heavy traffic. To reduce the problems caused by centralization of informal employment in Baneh, correct management of the market, expedition in the development of infrastructure, decrease in the centralization of commercial complexes and services in the central area and organizing the traffic plans of the central area are recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Informal Employment
  • Border City of Baneh
  • Commercial Complexes
  • Colportage
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