شناسایی پهنه های همگن جریانی بر اساس جابه جایی های فضایی و الگوهای سفر- مطالعه موردی: منطقه کلانشهری تهران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

الگوهای مختلف جابجایی فضایی، حاصل تأثیر عوامل مختلف سکونت، اشتغال و سطح درآمدند. در واقع نسبت به درجه انحراف از میزان رضایت افراد از ارائه این قبیل عناصر، پراکندگی و جابجایی‌های فضایی اتفاق افتاده و الگوهای مختلف فضایی شکل می‌گیرد. بر این اساس، در سطح منطقه کلانشهری تهران با توجه به نحوه پراکندگی این عناصر، انواع مختلفی از جابجایی‌های فضایی و الگوهای سفر شکل گرفته است. شناسایی پهنه‌های همگن جریانی در این منطقه، علاوه بر آنکه درکی از ساختار فضایی منطقه به دست می‌دهد، می‌تواند موجب برنامه‌ریزی برای الگوهای بهینه جابجایی‌ فضایی در سطح منطقه شود. از این رو، در این پژوهش با بهره‌گیری از روش توصیفی _ تحلیلی و با استفاده از ابزار تحلیل شبکه، بر اساس داده‌های مرتبط با جریان سفر افراد در سال 1385 به عنوان در دسترس‌ترین و مستندترین آمار موجود تا زمان انجام پژوهش، به شناسایی پهنه‌های همگن جریانی و ویژگی‌های آنها پرداخته شده است. در این راستا چگونگی برقراری پیوندهای ارتباطی میان شهرها در سطح منطقه کلانشهری و شکل‌گیری سطوح مختلفی از کانون‌های جذب و تولید سفر، راهنمای این پژوهش بوده است. نتایج یافته‌های حاصل از این مطالعه، به شناسایی سه پهنه همگن در سطح منطقه کلانشهری تهران منجر شده است که در هر یک از پهنه‌ها جابجایی‌های صورت گرفته بیشتر و منسجم‌تر از سایر پهنه‌ها بوده است. پهنه نخست به مرکزیت کلانشهر تهران و کلانشهر کرج، بیشترین سطح از میزان روابط و جابجایی‌ها را به خود اختصاص داده و همچنین پیوندهای قوی‌تری را با سایر پهنه‌ها برقرار کرده است، اما پهنه‌های شرقی و غربی به دلیل فاصله زیاد از یکدیگر رابطه جریانی قوی را با همدیگر شکل نداده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification of the homogeneous flow Zones based on Spatial Motilities and Trip Patterns in Tehran Metropolitan region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hashem Dadashpoor 1
  • Sepideh Tadayon 2
1 Assistant Professor in Tarbiat Modares University
2 Tarbiat Modares University
چکیده [English]

The emergence of metropolitan areas is a phenomenon of the twentieth century and is a continuation of the prevailing trend of urbanization at the beginning of the eighteenth century. These new forms of urban areas are not only greater than previous ones in scale and more associated with decentralization, but qualitatively they are included in various types of systems. These new urban forms reflect fundamental structural dynamics that have changed the geography of urban areas. Different patterns of displacement can be the result of various factors including housing, employment and income levels, the factors that lead to different types of spatial mobility. In fact, depending on the degree of deviation from the consent of the provider of such elements, spatial mobility and displacement occurs in other areas. The impact of housing, employment and the ability to take advantage of the services required is very important and effective on formation of different spatial patterns. The Tehran metropolitan area including the city of Tehran and the surrounding population, economic and services centers has created a unique market for employment and residence. With regard to the distribution of housing, employment and services, various types of spatial mobility and travel patterns are emerging. The main objective of this research is identifying homogeneous areas in Tehran metropolitan area based on the number of flows and their convergence. By identifying and analyzing the characteristics of these zones, we can identify the flow conditions of spatial mobility and relations between the zones in the area and planning for it.
The method used in this research is descriptive - analytical. In order to identify homogeneous zones, two elements, spatial mobility and physical links were considered. According to the available data, the most important of data is the origin-destination flow of people’s trips and to achieve the desired objectives, network flow analysis method was used. Thus, to identify homogeneous areas and to discuss spatial mobility trends in Tehran metropolitan area, network analysis features and fraction analysis - as a network analysis tool- was used. In addition, in this study, the characteristics of each zone were based on the calculation of the network including centralization and power, and how the presence or absences of certain central cities in each category are determined.
Based on fraction analysis as a tool of network analysis, three main groups were identified in Tehran metropolitan area. The first category encompasses Tehran and Karaj metropolitan areas as well as the Central, South and Southeast cities in the region. The second category covers the north and northeast cities and the third category includes western most cities in the region. The zones comprise of cities in the region based on their distance from each other and their roles. The flow conditions are not similar across the area; the first zone, Tehran mega city and Karaj metropolitan, as central points have been allocated the maximum amount of connections and mobility and have also established stronger links with other zones. However, eastern and western zones have not been able to create considerable ties due to their great distance from each other. Tehran metropolitan area in addition to having a population of several million and a great deal of economic activities has a high level of functional linkages. Karaj metropolitan area has many economic activities in the form of manufacturing industries and factories based within it, and thus make the area an important place. The centers of Tehran and Karaj are attractive for travel from all over the metropolitan area while travel in other settlements occurs on a more local level. Most towns’ sphere of influence do not exceed the respective border city.
Dependence on Tehran and then Karaj, shows the unbalanced system of movement and mobility in Tehran metropolitan area, while structural-physical changes in the current situation depends on new image of the area, mainly a mix of links and nodes and also emphasis on looking more and more integrated into the centers and areas in the form of a network of settlements. By identifying types of trips and their orientation, travel management can reduce the degree of concentration and amount of damaging trips. In addition, unnecessary trips can be eliminated through the development of communication technologies and network facilities and services and trips in the area can be planned in a balanced system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Spatial mobility
  • Trip patterns
  • spatial structure
  • Network Analysis
  • Tehran metropolitan area
  • Agency of Planning and Management, (2006). The Guidance of Territorial Planning of Iran Regions (2006). The Department of Economic Affairs and Coordination of Planning and Budget, Volume I, Second Edition. [in Persian]
  • Akhoondi, A., Barakpour, N., (2010).Strategies of the establishment of governance system in Tehran metropolitan region, Rahbord Journal, 19th time, winter 2006, pp. 297-324. [in Persian]
  • Azarbad, N., Salmani, M., Motie Langeroodi, S., Rokenddin Eftekhari, A., (2010). Analysis of settlement network with focus on population flows in Firoozkooh County, Research onHuman geography, No.74, winter 2010. [in Persian]
  • Burger, M.J., and Meijers, E. (2009). Spatial Structure and Productivity in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, Environment and Planning A, 42(6). pp. 1383-1402.
  • Dadashpoor, H., (2011). Analysis of the determinants locational advantages in metropolitan regions: Empirical evidences from four industrial sector in Tehran Metropolitan region, Journal of Amayesh e Mohit, 4rd time, No.14, Fall 2011. [in Persian]
  • Deding, M., and Filges, T. (2009). »Spatial Mobility and Commuting: The Case of Two-Earner Households«. Journal of Regional Science, 49th time, No.1, pp.113–147.
  • Diez, J. R. (2002). Metropolitan innovation systems: A comparison between Barcelona, Stockholm, and Vienna. International Regional Science Review, 25th time, No.1, pp.63-85.
  • Durhanm, A.M, (2004). »Social network analysis of women: An community in Angla«. Ecuador, Master of Science in Forestry, Michigan Technological University.
  • Hansen, Rickard. (2008). Daily mobility in Grenoble Metropolitan Region, France. Applied GIS methods in time geographical research. A Master thesis presented to Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis Centre for Geographical Information Systems.
  • http://www.eionet.europa.eu(European Environment Information and Observation Network,2014)
  • Kilkenny, M., & Nalbarte, L. (1977). Keystone, Sector Identification: A Graph Theory-Social Network Analysis Approach.Tennessee Valley Authority.
  • Klinger, T., Kenworthy, J., Lanzendorf, M. (2013). Dimensions of urban mobility cultures a comparison of German cities. Journal of Transport Geography, 31, pp.18-29.
  • Nijkamp, P. (1976). »Spatial Mobility and Settlement Patterns: An Application of Behavioral Entropy«. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Available from:http://webarchive.iiasa.ac.at/Admin/PUB/Documents/RM-76-045.pdf
  • Novak, J., & Sykora, L. (2007). »A city in motion: Time-space activity and mobility patterns of suburban inhabitants and the structuration of the spatial organization of the Prague metropolitan area«. Geografiska Annaler ( Series B: Human Geography),  89th time, No. 2, pp.147–167.
  • Reggiani, A., Rietveld, P. (2010), Networks, commuting and spatial structure, Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2rd No. 3/4, pp.1–4.
  • Schwanen, T., Dieleman, F.M., & Dijst, M. (2004). The Impact of Metropolitan Structure on Commute Behavior in the Netherlands: A Multilevel Approach. Growth and Change, 35th time, No.3, pp.304-333.
  • Sheller, M. (2011). »Mobility«. Editorial Arrangement of sociopedia.isa.
  • Mohammadi, J., Aghae, L., (2014). Measurement the level of development of urban settlements using cluster analysis: The case study of Tehran Province, Geographic study urban planning Journal, 2rd time, No.2, summer2014, pp. 143-156. [in Persian]
  • Planning Department of Tehran governing, (2010). Territorial Planning Document of Tehran province. Tehran. [in Persian]
  • Sarvar, H., Pourtaheri, M., Parhizkar, A., Kazemian, G., (2010).Economic globalization and the challenges of sustainability in Tehran Metropolitan region, Journal of Space Planning and Zoning, 14rd time, No.2, pp. 23-42. [in Persian]
  • Statistical Center of Iran, (2006). Census of Population and housing. Tehran. [in Persian]
  • The Road Maintenance and Road Transport of the country, (2006). Statistical Yearbook of the information received from (trip flows of  people). Tehran. [in Persian]
  • Zebardast, E., Hajipour, K., (2009). Explain the formation, evolution and transformation of metropolitan regions, Research on Human Geography, 69th time, pp. 105-121. [in Persian]