تحلیلی بر نقش زیباشناسانه هندسه در شکل گیری فضای شهری چهارباغ عباسی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.

2 استاد گروه شهرسازی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.

3 دانشیار گروه شهرسازی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.

چکیده

شکل هندسی محور چهارباغ اصفهان درطول تاریخ، تغییرات وتحولات بسیاری رابه خود دیده وهمواره ازفرازونشیب های تاریخی بهره جسته است،طراحی ساختار اولیه چهارباغ که به دوره صفوی بر می گردد. بر مبنای الگویی هندسی بوده و موضوع اصلی این مقاله راتشکیل می دهد. بنابراین در این بررسی چگونگی استفاده از روش های هندسی انتقال اندازه هاوجستجوی سنجه های (مدول) مبنایی برای تشخیص تناسب در محور چهارباغ مهم هستند. روش مورد استفاده در این پژوهش توصیفی، تحلیلی است به این صورت که ابتدا با توجه به متون، کتاب ها و نقشه های تاریخی، اشکال و تناسبات هندسی محور چهارباغ دردوره صفوی استخراج می گردد، سپس با استفاده از بار ارزشی زیباشناسانه نقش های هندسی چگونگی شکل گیری محور چهارباغ استنباط خواهد شد. نتایج تحلیل در این مقاله، بیانگر آن است که چهارباغ صفوی ازارتباطی همه جانبه، مادی و معنوی برخوردار بوده؛ که بواسطه تناسبی هندسی شکل های آن به تبعیت از یک بار معنایی بهم آمیخته، و این تناسب در ترکیب گری بین مولفه ها و در تناسبات کل و جزء ساختار ی هماهنگ و برقرار کرده، و این اوج کاربرد نقش ‌هندسی را در کار زیبای معماری ایرانی نشان می دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the aesthetic role of geometry in shaping Chahar Bagh Abbasi street

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ameneh Nasr abadi 1
  • Mohammad Reza Pourjafar 2
  • Ali Akbar Taghvaei 3
چکیده [English]

Geometrical shape of Chaharbagh axis –one of the main historical axes in Isfahan, Iran, belonging to the Safavid era- has seen much evolution and development over time. Furthermore, it has experienced historical changes consistently over the different periods .The basic structure of Chaharbagh Street, the masterpiece of urban design in Isfahan, dating back to the Safavid era, is based on patterns and geometric shapes and forms the main subject of this paper. Studies show that the main focus of Iranian architecture and urbanism is based on aesthetic perspective and Iranians have always placed a great deal of importance on beauty and aesthetics of space and have considered science of geometry as a powerful tool to achieve  create balance, harmony, beauty and order in space. Architecture of the Islamic period with their hidden geometry inspired the viewer's eyes to be illuminated with the beauty of existence. In fact, numbers, proportions and patterns were  used and connected, the to create the beauty. In addition to the geometric patterns and their related numbers, Islamic architecture applied sacred meanings to the system which played a symbolic role which people comprehended. It seems that, in this case, geometry was used as the way to create level, volume and sacred symbols. Thus, in designing the shapes and forms, Iranian architecture communicates between proportions
based on abstract and supernatural principles. Forms expressed with symbolic language is named holy geometry and have remained over time. In the traditional world, geometry is inseparable from the rest of the pythagorean sciences such as arithmetic, music and astronomy. Architecture that was closely linked with geometry was often of holy and important places to manifest of truth.Thus, in the Safavid era, people created a heavenly place through architecture for themselves which paid attention to the beauty and holiness of a place.Iranians were trying to apply proportion in the dimensions of the buildings to reflect the cosmic relations which were included in the golden ratio. Indeed, using the geometric in design as an art form to create shapes, patterns and proportions, reminds us of the importance ofarchitecture in the world.Therefore, in this study the use of geometric measures and seeking transfer sizes (modules) are an important basis for creating aesthetic beauty in the Chaharbagh axis. The method used in this research is descriptive analysis based on the historical literature, books, and maps, extracted forms and geometric proportions of Chaharbagh in the Safavid period. Then, formation of the Chaharbagh was elicited by using the aesthetic value of geometric design. The result of the analysis in this paper indicates that Chaharbagh of the Safavid era communicated comprehensively the material and the spiritual and geometric proportions merge forms to comply with a sense of value Proportions had established a coordinated structure, between the components and totality and show the extreme usage of geometric role in the beautiful Persian architecture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Geometry
  • Chaharbagh
  • Safavid
  • proportions
  • Beauty
  • Iranian architecture and urbanism
  • Ahary,Z.,(2013), Isfahan method in Urban Planning.Tehran.Art university Press. [in Persian]
  • §  Ahary,Z.,Habibi,M. & Gharechamani(2008), Isfahan method in Urban Planning(Linguistics, elements and urban spaces, vocabulary and grammar).Tehran.Art university Press. [in Persian]
  • §  Alami,M.,(1999), Safavid garden, Journal of Architecture and Urban Planning. No. 43 of 42. [in Persian]
  • §  Ali Shahi, M., (1971). A review of the principles of Iranian cities. Art and People magazine. No. 157. [in Persian]
  • Ardalan,N.,(2002), Sense of unity, Translator: Hamid Shahrokh,Tehran,Khak Press. .[in Persian]
  • Atec: The consulting company (2014). Design studies in Isfahan, page 3. [in Persian]
  • Badrizadeh,M(1986), Investigation and analysis of urban design in relation to the old structure. Articles Collections of  the Congress of architecture and urban planning in Bam. Tehran: Cultural Heritage Press. [in Persian]
  • Baghery,Kh.,(2009), An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education of the Islamic Republic of Iran: the goals & principles. First Part, Tehran, Cultural Academic Press.[in Persian]
  • Barden,L.,(1987), content analysis, translated by:M. Ashtiani & Sorkhabi Tehran, Shahid Beheshti University Press. [in Persian]
  • Brad Bennett, c. (1990). Dknstrksyvn. Translation M. Mozaieny. 1987 Processing and urban planning Press. [in Persian]
  • Beheshtian, A.,(1968) A Brief history of Hezar acres & Abbasabad gardens and palaces in Esfahan, Isfahan Cultural HeritagePress. [in Persian]
  • Bemanian, M.,(2013).The role of qualitative and quantitative numbers in Islamic architecture, Mah Press, No. 168. [in Persian]
  •  Burkhardt, T.(1998). Sacred Art (principles and methods), translated by:Stari, J, Soroush Press, Second Edition. [in Persian]
  •  Crane, .(1960), City Symbolic, Journal of American Institute of Planners , 26, 4:1980, 280-292
  • Dyalafva. (2012) itinerary of Dyalafva at the Qajar era. translated by: Farah-Vashi H,Tehran: book world Press. [in Persian]
  • Gadamer,h.g.(1994).Introduction To Philosorhical Hermeneutics
Gadamer,h.g.(1994).Introduction To Philosorhical Hermeneutics .joelc. weim sheimer . jean Grondin . Newhaven and London .yale university Press.

  • Ghloum Beyk, L. (1999). Isfahan Cities Patterns of pre-Safavid. Translated by: Nafisi,M , Architecture and Urban Planning Magazine. No. 43-42. [in Persian]
  • Habib, F (2010). Analysis of the interaction between cultural and physical city (Case Study: Isfahan, the Safavid era), Hoviat-E-Shahr Journal, Issue 4. [in Persian]
  •  Habibi, M., Ahary, Z. ,(2010)"Method of Isfahan, urban design language of ancient cities." : Cultural Research Office Press. [in Persian]
  •  Habibi, M., (1999). Isfahan School in urban planning, fine arts Journal, No. 3. [in Persian]
  •  Hejazi, M.,(2009), Sacred Geometry in Nature and Architecture of Iran, History of Scienceournal, No. 7. [in Persian]
  • Imrie.,(2009).Regulating Design: The Practices of Architecture. http: // usj. sagepub. com/ content/ 46/ 12/ 2507
  • Jafari,M.,(2011). Beauty And Art In Islam, VII, Tehran: Institute of Compilation and Publication of Allameh Jafari.[in Persian]
Mayhew, l.,(2007).Using Geometry to Evaluate Cities. Urban 37: 2515

  • Pyrlty, (1996). Going to Isfahan . translated by:Ketaaby,B, Tehran, Iqbal Press. [in Persian]
  • Rafiq and I. A.,(1987). MacLeod.Automatic structural component definition from a spatial geometry model.sage.com/content/23/2-3/147
  • Sanson ,(1968) itinerary of Chanson, translation Tafazoli, T, Tehran. [in Persian]
Stien, F. 1978. Human Aspects of urban form. Oxford. Pergamon. Press.

  •  Tabassi, M.fazl ., (2013). Recognition of the role and impact of  Safavid thought in the formation of entrance  of mosques in Esfahan, Fine Art Journal, Volume 17, Issue 3, 81-90 . [in Persian]
  • Yuflick ,Y.,(2004) Introduction to qualitative research in human science, Translated by: Jamshidian et al ,Qom, Sama Press. [in Persian]
  • Yvzvkchyan,V,. (1999). famous monuments of Isfahan, Translated by: Minasian, L,Ghazal Press. [in Persian]
  • Hojat,A .,(2014).Connection between three types of basic geometric and Creation of geometry in Iranian mosque, fine arts Journal, Volume 17. [in Persian]
  • Honafar, L. (1985). Isfahan City. Amir Kabir Press. [in Persian]
  •  Hulstr,L.,(1970). Iran in years ago. Translated by: Assemi, M. [in Persian]
  • Kampfer, A.,(1975). About the Shah of Iran. Translated by: Jahandary,K. Khwarazmi Press. [in Persian]
  • Kamyar,M.,(2009) .Geometric pattern in Safavid carpet. Journal of Scientific Society of carpet. No.11. [in Persian]
  • Lynch, K. (1999). The city landscape. Translation Mozaieny,M ,Tehran University Press. [in Persian]
  • Lynch, K.,(2000). Theory of Town. Translated by: Bahrainy, H,Tehran University Press. [in Persian]
  • Mirmiran, H., (2005). Personal archive. [in Persian]
  • Mozaieny, M., (1996). Urban and Rural Management in Iran. Tehran Urban Planning Ministry. [in Persian]
  •  Nadimi, H. (1998).,Actual Role, Academy of Sciences, No.14-15. [in Persian]
  • Nasr, H.,(2001). Man and Nature) spiritual crisis of modern man, Translated by: Gavahi,A. The second edition. Tehran, Islamic Culture Publications Office. [in Persian]
  • Nasr, H. (2006). Religion and the order of nature. Tehran: Hekmat Press. [in Persian]
  • Nasr, H ,.(1997). Islamic art and spirituality, translated by: Ghasemian, R, Tehran: Office of Religious Art Studies. [in Persian]
  • Neufert,.( 1995). Information of Architecture. Translated by:Mozafari, H . Azadeh Press. [in Persian]
  • Schwann, (2006). Intellect and wisdom. Translated by: Babak Alikhani. Tehran: Hermes Press. [in Persian]
  •  Shafaghi, S. (2002). Development of the structure of the Safavid era. Conference of Safavid &Isfahan. Isfahan University Press. [in Persian]
  • shayestefar, M., (2006)Shiie Art, Tehran, Islamic Art Studies Institute. [in Persian]
  •  shayestefar, M.,(2002) Position of the Quran and Islamic prayers in Islamic inscriptions, Tarbiat Modarres University Journal. [in Persian]
  • Sharden,J.,(1996) Chardin's travel log, translated by: Yaghmaei, I, Tehran. Toos Press. [in Persian]
  • Sigfried, G. (1989). Space, Time and Architecture. Translation Mozaieny ,M,. Tehran: Tehran Press. [in Persian]