عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Today, factors such as lifestyle, work and shortened distances, populations mostly live communally and in high densities. Everyday, the number of old, single family houses decrease while the number of apartments and towers increase. An increase in the number of floors of building causes an increase in the number of people residing in them, and thus increases the probability of error and incident - for example - fire. Furthermore, evacuation of a large number of people from the narrow corridors and steps during a short period of time is unlikely. Therefore, determining a safe and quick evacuation plan through direct observation of real situations, carrying out controlled experiments (maneuver) and simulation methods for the collection and analysis of pedestrian behavior in different situations is of great importance. In crisis mode, direct observation is rarely possible. Maneuver, in addition to being time-consuming and costly, is more likely to have behavioral errors. Moreover, atsmall and sparsely populated sites, maneuver can be assessed in terms of evacuationby holding practices . However, t such experiments at the more populous and larger sites is not feasible and simulation is used to forecast the effects of various emergency evacuation scenarios. Meanwhile, obtaining real data in this field requires costly and time consuming maneuvers and it is impossible to assess projects that have not yet been implemented. Hence, in this study software and simulations are used as is the norm at present for undertaking research in this field.
In this study, first, different models and approaches used for simulation are introduced and discussed and then a software based on these models was used. Then, an office building in Isfahan was studied to determine the most likely threats and hazazards through surveying experts in the field. According to a survey regarding the probability of damage to electricity rooms, gas and powerhouse facilities on the most vulnerable and the radius of destruction plants, gas plants, machine rooms, electrical rooms, will be the most pathogenic.[H1]
In the following seven scenarios, possible risks were defined and simulated in the software. By carrying out the shortest path analysiscurrent exit doors of the building were evaluated, and taking into account that a greater number of people used the east side of the building, an emergency exit door on this side was put forward. Furthermore, this study identified six critical corridors (bottleneck at evacuation).
Solutions presented in this study include widening doors of the building, installing emergency exit signposts, maintaining and making regular safety checks of facilities keeping relief supplies in the building (such as high pressure valves for firefighters), reducing the number of fixed barriers ( such as gates, fences and chains at private parking lots ) and replacing them with interrupted plastic barriers. , Marginal car parks should be better managed to create enough space for rescue vehicles to pass through and control parking on the main walkways near the main entrance .
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