تحلیل فضایی مسجد در شهر اردبیل در دوره ی معاصر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جغرافیا و برنام هریزی شهری، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران.

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران.

چکیده

شهر اردبیل به عنوان یکی از شهرهای مهم قلمرو تمدن دوران اسلامی معاصر در دهه های اخیر، با رشد شتابان شهرنشینی در دوره‌ی معاصر (از دهه‌ی 1340) مواجه بوده است. این روند منجر به ایجاد عدم توازن در توزیع مناسب فضایی خدمات و فضاهای عمومی شهری شده است. از جمله‌ی این فضاها، مسجد به عنوان یکی از ارکان شهر در دوره‌ی تمدن اسلامی معاصر است. توزیع نامتوازن فضایی مساجد در سطح شهر مسئله و تلاش برای ایجاد توازن در توزیع فضایی آن، چالش پیش‌روی برنامه‌ریزان، مدیران و سیاست‌گزاران شهری است. از این‌رو، ایجاد تعادل و توازن در توزیع مناسب مکانی مساجد از طریق برنامه ریزی فضایی، تحلیل فضایی این فضاها در مقیاس شهری و محله‌ای را ضروری مینماید. با درک این ضرورت، مقاله حاضر با ‌هدف تحلیل الگوی فضایی پراکنش فضایی مساجد، ارتباط مساجد با تراکم جمعیت، ارتباط با فضاهای تاریخی شهر و تعیین سطح برخورداری محلات شهری از مساجد به عنوان فضاهای مذهبی و اجتماعی تهیه شده است. مقاله حاضر از نوع توصیفی ـ تحلیلی است. در گام نخست، مکان استقرار 179 مسجد از اسناد شهری استخراج شده است. در گام دوم، از فنون آمار فضایی همانند کرنل، نزدیکترین ‌همسایگی، خود همبستگی فضایی و رگرسیون وزنی جغرافیایی در محیط نرم افزار آرک.جی.ای اس برای تحلیل های فضایی داده‌ها استفاده شده است. یافته های مقاله نشان میدهند که الگوی پراکنش فضایی مساجد اردبیل از نوع خوشه ای است. همچنین رابطه ی معنی دار مثبتی بین توزیع فضایی مساجد با تراکم جمعیت و ارکان تاریخی شهر وجود دارد. نتیجه اینکه، توزیع فضایی مساجد در سطح محلات شهر اردبیل به صورت ناهمگون است. در پایان بر مبنای یافته ها، پیشنهاداتی برای توزیع متناسب و عادلانه مساجد، ارائه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial Analysis of Mosque in Ardebil city in the Contemporary Era

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Mohammadi 1
  • Ebrahim Firouzi Majandeh 2
1 University of Mohaghegh Ardabil
چکیده [English]

Objectives: The city of Ardabil, as one of the most important cities in the territory of the Islamic civilization, in recent decades, is faced with the problem of unbalanced distribution of mosques in the city. This uneven distribution can be dependent on such factors as population density, historical elements and the formation of city neighborhoods. The unbalanced distribution of mosques in the city, can lead to some problems such as congestion and overcrowding in some neighborhoods. The aim of this study is analyzing the spatial distribution pattern and frequency of mosques and its relationship between the population density and the historical elements and determination of the mosque distribution in the city areas and neighborhoods. The type of study is analytical-descriptive and the location of the 179 mosques has been extracted from urban documents. Methods such as Kernel Density, the closest neighborhood average and geographic Weighting Regression analysis was used in Arc GIS 10.3 software.
Findings: The results of using the mean nearest neighbor method, shows that the distribution pattern of mosque in Ardebil city with a coefficient of 99%, is a cluster type. Use of geographical weighted regression method and Kernel Density method, shows that the density and proximity of mosques in the central part of the city are much higher than within the old and median tissues and marginal or new neighborhoods of the city. The main reason for the concentration of mosques in central part of the city is the existence of places like the grand mosque, Bazaar, commercial spaces, the geographical center of the city and old neighborhoods. The use of spatial autocorrelation (Moran index) method showed that there is a significant positive relationship between the population density and distribution of mosques in the city area. New urban districts often face low-density point mosques. In the remainder of the city and in areas with high population concentration, the numbers of mosques are greater. New neighborhoods due to their short life and low population density  lack completed mosques. Geographically weighted regression method results showed that there is a high positive and meaningful relationship between distance of the main urban spaces and symbols with the number of mosques. About 81 percent of the mosques are located in the service radius of zero to five minutes of the city’s main spaces and symbols. The buffering method and determination of the mosque coverage area and calculation of religious space per capita in urban neighborhoods showed that the distribution of mosques in neighborhoods of the city is often uneven. The central parts of the city have more mosques, but towns and new neighborhoods often have fewer mosques.
Results: The results of this article show that the spatial distribution pattern of Ardabil mosques is the cluster type and there is  a significant relationship between the spatial distribution of mosques and population density and the historical elements of the city. The spatial distribution of mosques in Ardebil city neighborhoods is heterogeneous. Finally, based on the findings, recommendations are presented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mosque
  • spatial analysis
  • geographic information system
  • Ardebil city

Asgari, A. (2011). Spatial statistical analysis with ARC GIS. Urban planning  and Processing Corporation. [In Persian]

Ataei, H. M.R., Hamzehnejad, M., Noghrekar, A. (2011). A Study about the Location of Mosques in Medina during the Era of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) (An Introduction to Principles for Determining Proper Locations for Mosques in Islamic Cities), Baghnzar Journal, No. 8, 3-16. [In Persian]

Ayhan, Irem and Cubukcu, k.mert (2010). Explaning histirical urban development  using the location of mosques:A Gis/spatial statics-based approach, Applied Geography,Vol.30: 229-238.

Azami, H. (2014). Compilation of spatial distribution of Islamic mosques based on the Islamic city factors. The Sixth National Conference of planning and urban management. Mashhad, Iran. [In Persian]

Azar, A., Latifi, M., Torkmani, M. (2013). Identification and ranking the criteria for locating mosques. Islamic management journal, 2: 205-222. [In Persian]

Baharudin, Athiqah and sabrina iamail, Alice (2014) Communal mosques: Design functionality toward the development of sustaainability for community, Procedia- Social and behavioral sciences, Vol.153: 106-120.

Baqeri, A. (2008). Centrality, status and distribution of mosques in the neighborhoods of the city. Journal of Geography Training Growth, Issue 2: 10-4. [In Persian]

Bastani R. H. (2012). Neighborhood concept in Iranian cities of early Islamic centuries. Journal of Iran and Islam, 10: 30-1. [In Persian]

Corporation for New Towns Development (2012). Guide the design of new towns mosque Mother. Technical Assistance Office of Planning and Architecture, Tehran. [In Persian]

Danesh, J. (2010). Principles of formation and organization of the physical principles of Islamic city. Journal of Islamic and Iranian city Studies, Vol. 1, Issue 1: 15-31. [In Persian]

Fazel, S., Bekmohammadi, H. (2012). Analysis of the spatial structure of the population in urban systems in Isfahan province during 1385-1335. Journal of environmental planning, No. 19: 163-143. [In Persian]

Ghorbani, Rahim (1391). Indicators of Islamic Architecture and Urbanism. Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran. [In Persian]

Ghorbannejad, P. Mohammadi, F. (2014). Location pattern of mosques: the case study of nabi mosque according to verses, hadithes and prophets sira, International journal of Culture and History, Vol.1: 22-25. [In Persian]

Khaksari, A. (2009). Urban neighborhoods in Iran. Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies Publications , Tehran. [In Persian]

Khodai, Z., Taghvaie, A. (2011). Personality of Islamic city with emphasis on the Islamic city fabric, Journal of Islamic and Iranian city Studies, Issue 4: 113-103. [In Persian]

Mshhdyzadh Dehaghani, N. (1999). An Analysis of The Characteristics of Urban Planning at Iran. University of Science and Technology, Tehran. [In Persian]

Nazarian, A. (2004). The dynamics of urban systems. Mobtakeran Publications, Tehran. [In Persian]

New Towns Development Corporation (2012). Guide the design and architecture of mosques in new cities. Technical Assistance Office of Planning and Architecture, Tehran. [In Persian]

Pourmohammadi, M. R (2012). Urban Land Use Planning. SAMT publications, Tehran. [In Persian]

Rahnama, M., Asadi, A., Rousta, M. (2013). Analysis of the spatial distribution of land prices in the city of Mashhad. Journal of geography and urban planning Zagros perspective, pp: 105-87. [In Persian]

Road and Urban Planning Ministry (2012). New towns Architectural Design Guideline. Tehran.  Road and Urban Planning Ministry Publication. [In Persian]

Shaterian, M. (2013). Nature and city in the Islamic teachings and culture. Mursal Publications, Isfahan. [In Persian]

Shiae, E. (2014). Principles of Urban Planning. University of Science and Technology. [In Persian]

Statistical Center of Iran (2011). Selection of General Population and Housing Census Results, Tehran.

Tarho Kavosh Consultant (2007). Ardabil Master Plan Report. Ardabil Province Housing and Urban Planning Organization. [In Persian]

Zarrabi, A., Alinezhad, K. (2010). Analysis of the elements and Urban Land use in Islamic Cities. Art Monthly Magazine, Issue 143: 27-16. [In Persian]

Ziari, K. (2011). Urban land use planning. Institute of Tehran University Publications, Tehran. [In Persian]