تبیین عوامل مؤثر بر میزان رضایتمندی ساکنان مسکن مهر از وضعیت سکونت (مطالعه موردی: شهر دهاقان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشگاه هنر اصفهان

چکیده

مسکن به‌عنوان یکی از مهم‌ترین نیازهای انسان، در پایین‌ترین سطح خود در قالب صرفا یک سرپناه و در سطوح بالاتر جهت تعالی انسان مطرح می‌گردد. در قرن اخیر با ادامه روند گسترش شهرنشینی در جهان، شهرهای بزرگ و کوچک با مشکلی نه‌چندان تازه اما بسیار مهم روبه‌رو شده‌اند. طبقات اجتماعی در شهرهای امروزی به‌شدت در حال فاصله گرفتن از یکدیگر هستند. داشتن مسکن مناسب، حق هر شهروند است. در قانون اساسی ایران، بر تأمین مسکن برای تمامی اقشار جامعه تأکید شده است. دراین‌بین اقشار کم‌درآمد جامعه با مشکلات متعددی جهت تأمین مسکن روبه‌رو هستند. این موضوع سبب سیاست‌گذاری‌های مختلف در بخش تأمین مسکن نظیر مسکن اجتماعی، مسکن قابل استطاعت و مواردی چون آن شده است. در سال‌های اخیر، یکی از بزرگ‌ترین تصمیمات دولتی اخذشده در بخش مسکن ایران، مسکن مهر است، که در راستای تأمین مسکن اقشار کم‌درآمد جامعه تدوین ‌شده است. هدف مهم این مقاله ارزیابی میزان رضایت قشر کم‌درآمد ساکن در مجتمع‌های مسکن‌مهر از متغیرهای کیفی و کمی سکونت است. در این مقاله ابتدا شاخص‌های کیفیت سکونت در مطالعات پیشین بررسی شده، سپس متغیرهای لازم (71 متغیر) جهت ارزیابی میزان رضایت ساکنین از طریق پرسشنامه تبیین و مورد ارزیابی قرارگرفته‌اند. در نهایت با استفاده از روش تحلیل عاملی، 22 عامل در قالب چهار سطح واحد مسکونی، ساختمان مسکونی،سایت مسکن مهر و محدوده بلافصل سایت مسکن مهر به عنوان عوامل موثر بر رضایتمندی ساکنین مسکن مهر شناسایی‌شده‌اند. در این مقاله پروژه مسکن مهر شهر دهاقان با 609 واحد مسکونی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است. حجم نمونه مورد مطالعه برابر با 150 خانوار بوده که با به کارگیری آزمون کرویت بارتلت(sig<0.05) و معیار کیسر-مه یر- اولکین(KMO=0.611)، مناسب بودن حجم نمونه جهت انجام تحلیل عاملی مورد تایید قرار گرفته است. یافته های مقاله نشان می دهد که نبود دسترسی مطلوب به خدمات رفاهی پایه (آموزشی، مذهبی، امنیتی) و مراکز عمده فعالیتی، عدم مطلوبیت وضعیت پیاده مداری(وضعیت معابر) و اختلاط کاربری، فقدان مراقبت و نگهداری از فضای داخلی مجتمع، وجود آلودگی‌های زیست محیطی در مجاورت سایت و درون آن، فقدان فضای گذران اوقات فراغت و پرورش استعدادها از مهم‌ترین عوامل در نارضایتی ساکنین مجتمع مسکن مهر دهاقان است. جهت محاسبه میزان رضایت مندی ساکنین از وضعیت سکونت، مجموع امتیازات عاملی هر عامل نرمال شده و عوامل به صورت نسبی بر حسب امتیازات نرمال شده سطح بندی شده اند. همچنین خروجی های تحلیل خوشه ای بیانگر آن است که 76درصد از ساکنین از وضعیت سکونت خود ناراضی می باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Factors Affecting the Level of satisfaction among Residents in “MEHR” Housing Project in Dehaqan, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohamad Javad Noori 1
  • Kaveh Asadpoor 2
چکیده [English]

Objectives: The “MEHR” housing project is one of the most recent projects undertaken by the Ministry of Roads & Urban Development. Despite the main aim of the project which is accommodating low income citizens, recent studies demonstrate that the living condition in these housing projects is not satisfactory. The main aim of this article is to evaluate the satisfaction level of residents in Mehr housing project from residents’ perspectives through both qualitative and quantitative methods. “Exploratory Factor analysis” was used as the main method mainly due to its capability in analyzing the parameters which are affected by the context.
Findings: The findings of this article indicate that factor analysis causes a reduction in the number of satisfaction indicators from 71 to 22. Furthermore, application of “varimax rotation” in factor analysis method is due to its ability in correlating literature reviews with the result. In this article, KMO index was 0/611 which is considered in the standard range of factor analysis. Skewness & Kurtosis indexes was calculated to assess the normality of questionnaire data.  Finally, normalization process show the various conditions of various factors. Eventually, cluster analysis presented the distribution of satisfaction in the study sample (150 households). In contrast to prior studies, this research identified a four-level structure for Mehr housing project satisfactory factors (housing units, housing buildings; housing site, surrounding area of the site)
Results: The results show that the most important factors in the residents’ dissatisfaction in “MEHR” housing project were the lack of access to primary civic services (educational, religious and security), lack of activity centers, the need for pedestrian-oriented and mixed use development, insufficient surveillance and low maintenance service on the interior spaces of housing units, high level of environmental pollutants and lack of recreational spaces. The findings of this article show that 76 percent of households were not satisfied with the quality of their life. The result of this article would help the executive agencies of “MEHR” housing projects, in considering the satisfaction level of residents. This article also demonstrates that "shelter making" alone cannot be considered a comprehensive satisfactory parameter for low income households because the essential needs of individuals is to live in a well-designed community and not just in a shelter. Therefore, this article recommends to first assess the future needs of residents prior to the development process. People who live in Dehaqan Mehr housing were found to be satisfied with having a shelter but the quality of life was not acceptable due to the factors discussed. The main factors causing serious problems in this Mehr housing project were identified to be related to its infrastructures and social and health issues as Finally, it is worth mentioning that  the city management system of “MEHR” housing project has to invest on short term actions, first to build a school, a mosque and a police station and second to allocate the best places for communal activities  (such as markets, green spaces and cultural centers).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Social housing
  • Mehr housing project
  • residential satisfaction
  • Exploratory Factor Analysis
  • Mehr housing in Dehaqan
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