عنوان مقاله [English]
Collective memory is the common memory of individuals, as members of a group, of the experienced events in a social and spatial framework. Collective memory brings about the place identity by creating meanings in a space. This place identity can end up with promoting personal identity; therefore, disregarding the collective memories of a city leads to huge expenses as identity crises. Thus, this research is carried out to identify the key factors on promoting collective memory in Tehran’s squares. In this regard, the research begins with giving an account of ‘collective memory’ and its relationship to place and square through the study of valid documents with the emphasis on Murice Halbwachs’s theory of the collective memory. Afterwards, the preliminary effective factors, derived from the documents studied were identified in both Tajrish and Baharestan squares by means of observation and documents study. In order to test the proposed model of factors, collective memories of visitors of Tajrish and Baharestan square were asked by semi-structured interview. Then, the key factors affecting the formation and promotion of collective memories of citizens were extracted through the combined content analysis (qualitative and quantitative) of interviews. Finally, the significance of the extracted factors was determined by comparative analysis. Based on the outcomes of the study of documents, these factors were fallen into two main categories: spatial factors and characteristical factors. While the result of the study of documents led to the identification of collectivity, tranquility, singularity, flexibility, insideness and outsideness, integrity, continuity, orientation, identification, and transparency, the consequence of both content and comparative analysis added “escape” to the mentioned factors. These factors affect the collective memory in three different ways. The first group of factors will end up with the formation of collective memory, while the second group influences the image of that memory and the last group brings about the continuity of memory. In addition, content and comparative analysis laid great emphasis on characteristical factors in formation and promotion of collective memory in both Tajrish and Baharestan squares.