راهکارهای تعیین اندازه و سطح بهینه حریم شهرها در طرح‌ جامع شهرهای کمتر از 50 هزار نفر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس وزارت راه و شهرسازی

2 وزارت راه و شهرسازی

چکیده

یکی از مهمترین مشکلات برنامه‌ریزان در طرح‌های جامع شهری، ‌تعیین دقیق مرز محدوده‌های شهر به ویژه حریم آن است. شورای عالی شهرسازی و معماری ایران در ماده 7 مصوبه تفویض اختیار تصویب طرح‌های جامع شهرهای با جمعیت کمتر از یکصد هزار نفر به شورای برنامه‌ریزی و توسعه استان‌ها (مورخ 15/5/86 و با اصلاحیه مورخ 5/5/88)، کارگروه‌های تخصصی امور زیربنایی و شهرسازی و شوراهای برنامه‌ریزی و توسعه استا‌ن‌ها را موظف نمود، به هنگام بررسی و تصویب طرح‌های جامع شهری، حریم شهرها را متناسب با سطح محدوده و افق طرح، حدوداً سه تا پنج برابر سطح محدوده شهر تعیین نمایند. در این مقاله با هدف بررسی و نقد مصوبه یاد شده شورای عالی و میزان تطابق وضعیت شهرهای ایران با آن، 50 شهر نمونه از سراسر کشور انتخاب گردید. روش نمونه‌گیری در این پژوهش، انتخاب تصادفی بوده است. از مجموع 1012 شهر کشور در سال 85، 866 شهر دارای جمعیت زیر 50 هزار نفر بوده که با توجه به انتخاب 50 شهر در کل کشور، طرح جامع 77/5 درصد از شهرها که در طی سال‌های 88 تا 90 به تصویب رسیده‌، مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. شیوه بررسی بدین صورت بوده که با استفاده از اسناد طرح‌های توسعه و عمران (جامع) این شهرها، مساحت محدوده و حریم پیشنهادی استخراج گردیده تا امکان مقایسه با مصوبه شورای عالی شهرسازی و معماری ایران فراهم شود. نتایج این پژوهش حاکی از آن است که متوسط حریم پیشنهادی در50 شهر مورد نظر، 1/8 برابر محدوده پیشنهادی بوده و در تعیین حریم شهر بیشتر مسائل اقتصادی و اندازه کمی حریم مد نظر، مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. همچنین حریم بیشتر شهرهای مورد بررسی، به شکلی نامتناسب طراحی شده است. به نظر می‌رسد مصوبه یاد شده باید مورد بازنگری قرار گرفته و تجدید نظر در ملاک‌های تعیین اندازه حریم شهرها در چارچوب منطقی برای توسعه آینده و بر مبنای شرایط خاص کالبدی، زیست‌محیطی، اقتصادی و حتی سیاسی انجام شود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Solutions to determine the optimum level and size of the city limit in the master plans of the cities with a population of less than 50 thousand inhabitants

نویسنده [English]

  • seyed hossein mirzade 2
چکیده [English]

It is fortunate that many fine scholars and theorists, in the past and present, have focused their attention on cities. Nowadays, we know a great deal about how cities influence the evolution of their people and culture, how they are organized spatially, what economic functions they perform, how they are planned and governed, and their probable futures. In recent years, cities have found much importance in Iranians’ economic and social lives and a great deal of people have immigrated to cities in recent decades. Thus, many cities in Iran have a rapid physical spread in new valuable areas such as agricultural lands. One of the main problems of urban planners in comprehensive plans and urban development is determining the exact boundary of the city. Planners try to detect the boundary of cities with particular objectives such as protecting rich agricultural lands from long-term spread of the city, and protecting ecological and natural environmental zones around cities The Urban Development and Architecture Supreme Council of Iran in Article 7 of the ratification dated 6/7/2005had determined the size of cities boundaries should be 3 to 5 times the legal city limits . In the article, we are going to evaluate this decision in the urban planning system of Iran. There is increasing emphasis on importance of research projects as part of the planning process by urban researchers and extensive use of this word in many operational and scientific research shows the importance of evaluation. To achieve this aim, the following three questions must be answered: 1. What role do laws play in measuring the size of city boundaries? 2. Does the Urban Development and Architecture Supreme Council focus on the position and function of each city?,? 3. Do laws have any flaws in determining city boundaries? To answer these questions, 50 cities were chosen as the study sample in order to evaluate  the ratification of the council and survey the level of compatibility of the cities’ status in Iran with the mentioned act. Tables of current and suggested use are extracted using the comprehensive plan of each sample and the results are compared with the act of the Great Council. The method used was descriptive- analytical and the research is applied in nature. The results imply that in the act some issues such as different climates, roles and positions of functions and ethnic-cultural and economic problems are disregarded. The investigation revealed that on average, city boundaries were 8.1 times greater than the legal limit of cities, and should be reviewed in this section of the ratification. Economic issues were often considered in determining the boundaries of the city which often were disproportionate to the shape of urban boundaries and little attention was paid to urban boundary limits. Therefore, the above decision must be reviewed. A review of methods to assess the logical framework of city boundary limits in the future development of cities have to be based on the physical and environmental aspects of lands because the reform of urban boundaries should protect agricultural land. If urban and regional planners disregard these points, local and national managers may face different problems that will cause some threats in the future.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • City Boundary
  • the Legal Edge of City
  • Iran's great Council for Urban Development and Architecture
  • Comprehensive Plan
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