تحلیلی برعوامل موثر بر شکل گیری تصویر مقصد در گردشگری شهری مطالعه موردی: شهر ارومیه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا

2 دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

اهمیت تصویر گردشگری برای همگان چه محققین و چه متولیان در صنعت گردشگری روشن است، این اهمیت عمدتاً بدلیل تأثیر بر روی درک ذهنی گردشگران و رفتار منتج از آن (انتخاب مقصد) مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. از این رو پژوهش حاضر به بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر تصویر ذهنی گردشگران از شهر ارومیه و الگوی رفتاری منتج از آن پرداخته است. رویکرد پژوهش حاضر توصیفی-پیمایشی است. بدین منظور ابتدا مدل مفهومی پژوهش بر اساس مبانی نظری، پیشینه تحقیق و سوالات طراحی گردید و سپس با استفاده از روش پیمایشی از طریق پرسشنامه محقق ساخته به گردآوری اطلاعات درمورد تصویر ذهنی گردشگران قبل و بعد از سفر به شهر ارومیه بر اساس شاخص ها و متغیرهای مورد مطالعه و در انتها آزمون فرضیات گردید. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه گردشگران داخلی بوده که در شش ماهه اول سال 1393 به شهرارومیه سفرکرده اند. حجم نمونه براساس جدول مورگان به تعداد 350 نفرانتخاب گردید. تحلیل داده ها به کمک نرم افزار Spss صورت گرفت. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش بر اساس صورتبندی مدل مفهومی پژوهش و سوالات تحقیق نشان دهنده اینست که ارزش درک شده بر تصویر مقصد گردشگران تاثیر مستقیم داشته یعنی با توجه به میزان ضریب تبیین بدست آمده در مدل رگرسیونی می توان گفت که 43 درصد از تغییرات متغیر وابسته (تصویر مقصد) متاثر از تغییرات متغیرهای وارد شده در مدل یعنی کیفیت سفر و ارزش درک شده می باشد .
همچنین نتایج حاصل از آزمون فرضیه دوم موید این مطلب است که تصویر ذهنی قبل و بعد از سفر به شهر ارومیه بعنوان مقصد گردشگری در برخی از شاخصهای مورد مطالعه تفاوت معناداری را نشان می دهد،آزمون فرضیه سوم نیز حاکی از اینست که رابطه مستقیم و نسبتاً قوی(75/0) مابین دو متغیر تصویر استنباط شده از شهر ارومیه و تمایل گردشگران به سفر مجدد وجود دارد، بنحوی که آزمون رو اسپیرمن نشان می دهد که رابطه رضایت از سفر و تمایل به سفر مجدد در فاصله اطمینان 95 درصد معنا دار است و می توان گفت با بهبود تصویر ذهنی گردشگران تمایل گردشگران به سفر مجدد نیز افزایش پیدا می کند. بنابراین طراحی راهبردهای مؤثر برای ایجاد یک تصویر قوی و مثبت در ذهن گردشگر ضروری به نظر می رسد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of effective factors in the formation of destination image of urban tourism - Case Study: City of Urmia

چکیده [English]

The tourism destination image (TDI) is considered an effective element in destination selection and tourist behavior . The importance of tourism destination image is clear for all practitioners in the tourism industry and researchers. This importance mainly lies in tourists’ mental image of a destination image and the resultant behavior that lead to choosing a favorable destination. The importance of the tourist destination image is universally acknowledged since it affects the individual’s subjective perception and consequent behavior and destination choice. Thus, this study investigated effective elements in the formation of these mental images. First a model was developed based on theories and literature review and then data of tourists’ mental images of Urmia city in Iran was collected by survey method in the form of  a questionnaire. Then, the hypothesis was tested. The study population consisted of all domestic tourists who travelled to Urmia between March and August, 2014 (a period of six months) .
Objectives
This research attempted to identify the relationship between tourists’ mental images, their decisions and behavior and the importance of destination image. Destination image is investigated as an effective element in tourism behavior and market. Thus, the inferred vision of tourists of Urmia and effective elements in creating and changing this image was first studied. Then, proposals for creating and improving the positive and extraordinary images of tourism was put forward. Western Azerbaijan province is the only province in Iran which has common boundaries with three countries and thus has an eastern and western corridor into and out of Iran. This fact could lead to an increase of tourism in the area. Urmia, like other cities in the province has an ancient civilization, rich historical places and various cultural and natural attractions which means it has great potentials for tourism.  
Finding and Results
Data for this research was obtained by library studies and literature reviews which led to the design of the questionnaires. Questionnaires included 29 questions (4 question for travel satisfaction, 7 question for perceived value, 7 question for Trip quality, and 11 variable question for field variables and other issues for tourism travel).
In this research, in order to analyze data and mental images of Urmia, travelers were questioned regarding attractions, availability, safety, services, hosting indexes before and after their travels.
Results indicate that the perceived value has a direct effect on tourist destination image and is  due to the coefficient of determination in the regression model. It can be said that 43 percent of the dependent variable (the destination image) can be obtained by changing the variables in the model's quality and perceived travel value.
The results of the second hypothesis confirmed that image before and after traveling to the city of Urmia as a tourist destination is different in some indicators. A third hypothesis suggested the relatively strong correlation (75/0) between the two variables of perceived image of the city of Urmia and tourists willing to travel there again. Moreover, the Spearman test showed that relationship satisfaction and willingness to travel were 95 percent significant. It can therefore be concluded that by improving the image of tourists will also increase the willingness of tourists to travel again.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Destination Image
  • perceived value
  • Trip quality
  • Urmia
  • Baloglu, S. and K.W. McCleary,. (1999). U.S. International travellers’ images of  four Mediterranean destinations: A comparison of visitors and non visitors. Journal of Travel Research, 38(2):  144-152.
  • Barroso Castro,C, Martı´n Armario ,E , Martı´n Ruiz,D (2007) . The influence of market  heterogeneity on the relationship between a destination’s image and tourists’ future behaviour. Tourism Management .Vol28: 175–187
  • Beerli,  Asuncio`n , Martı´n ,Josefa D.) 2004.(  Factors influencing Destination Image. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 31, No. 3 : 657–681.
  • Bianchi, C., Pike, S., & Lings, I, )2014(, Investigating attitudes towards three South American destinations in an emerging long haul market using a model of consumer-based brand equity (CBBE), Tourism Management, 42, 215-223.
  • Levaluation variables and after purchase behavior: Inter-relationships. Tourism Management, 22(6): 607–616.
  • Chen Ching-Fu, Tsai DungChun (2007)  How destination  image  and  evaluative  factors  affect  behavioral intentions?, Tourism Management 28 :1115–1122
  • Della Corte V. and R. Micera (2007). Destination image analysis and management : results of an empirical research on the case of Naples. In proceedings of the 6th International congress Marketing Trends, France, Paris.
  • Dimanche, F. (2003). Destination image evaluation: Part I. Eclipse [On-line], 9/10. Available: http://www.moonshine.es/ECLIPSE.
  • Drumm,A, Moore,A,.(2009). An Introduction to Ecotourism Planning ,translated by Mohsen Ranjbar,Ayeezh Publishers. [in Persian]
  • Echtner, Charlotte .M.; Ritchie, J. R. Brent (1991): The meaning and measurement of destination image
  • Gallarza , Martina G . Gil Saura , Irene .  DESTINATION IMAGE Towards a Conceptual Framework . Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 56-78.
  • Gheydari,H,Sadeghloo,T ,  mahdavi,D,. (2015). Explanation the role of destination environmental quality on improving of tourist intellectual imaging (Case study area: tourism destination rural of Rood bar- Ghasran rural district),Barnemerizi & Amayesh e Faza Journal. Volume 19, Issue 2, , Page 61-88 . [in Persian] 
  • Ghanbari ,Y, Komasi,H, Jamini ,D,Arianpour,A,. (2012). Identifying and Prioritizing Tourism Attractions in Ravansar Based on Tourist Attracting Potentials, Ghoghrafia &Paydari e Mohit Journal. Volume 2, Issue 3, Page 65-86. [in Persian]
  • Heydari  Chianeh,R.,(2008). Principles of tourism,Samt Publishers. [in Persian]
  • Hose, T. A. and E. Wickens (2004). Typologies, tourism locations and images: Meeting the real needs of real tourists. In S. Weber & R. Tomljenovic (Eds.). Reinventing a tourism destination. Facing the challenge (pp. 103-114). Institute for Tourism, Zagreb
  • Kotler, P., et al. (1993). Marketing places. Free Press, New York.
  • Mansuri moayed,F Soleymani,S,.(2013). Marketing Tools and Tourists` Destination Image, Tourism Management Studies  Journal, Volume 7, Issue 18,Pagr93-110. [in Persian]
  • Mehrabi Boshrabadi,H,Jalayi Esfandabadi,A,Shakibaii,A,.(2011).The Role of Tourism In The Economy and physical development of Kerman,Modiryat e Shahri ournal, Volume 9,Special Issue,Page139-152. [in Persian] 
  • Molina , Arturo, Gómez, Mar and, Martín-Consuegra  , David. (2010 ) Tourism marketing information and destination image management .    African Journal of Business Management Vol. 4
  • Moradi,H,Hematti,A,.(2010). Measure customer satisfaction with the quality of services using the Kano model- Servqual,2nd International Conference of Services Marketing. [in Persian] 
  • Movahed,A,Kahzadi,S,.(2010). Analysis of factors affecting tourism development in Kurdistan Province using SWOT model,Pzhohesh & Barnamerizi Shahri Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2,Page85-102. [in Persian] 
  • Nicoletta  a , Raffaella, Servidio b, Rocco (2012) Tourists' opinions and their selection of tourism destination images: An affective and motivational evaluation . Tourism Management Perspectives 4 :19–27
  • Papoli,M,Saqai,M.,(2007).Tourism(Nature &Consept),Samt Publishers. [in Persian]
  • Pearce PL (1982). The Social Psychology of Tourist Behavior, Pergamon Press, Oxford
  • Ranjbaran, B, Ganbari,H,. (2005). Perceived image of a tourist destination as a factor for competitive advantage in the tourism industry and tourism.3rd International Management Conference. [in Persian]
  • Reilly, M. D. (1990). Free elicitation of descriptive adjectives for tourism image assessment. Journal of travel research, 28(4): 21-26.
  • Saraei,M, Shamshiri M,.(2013). Tourism situation study in the city of Shiraz towards sustainable development using the SWOT Technique.Ghoghrafia & Barnamerizi Mohiti Journal. Volume 3, Issue 24 ,Page 69-88168 . [in Persian]
  • Stabler, W.J. )1988( The image of destination regions: theoretical and empirical aspects, Marketing in the Tourism Industry: the Promotion of Destination Regions, Goodall.
  • Stepchenkova, S. and A.M. Morrison (2006). The destination image of Russia: from the online induced perspective. Tourism Management, 27: 943-956.
  • Stepchenkovaa  , Svetlana& Morrisonb , Alastair M.( 2008 )   Russia’s destination image among American pleasure travelers: Revisiting  Echtner and Ritchie  . Tourism   Management , 29 :548–560
  • Taj zadeh Namin,A, Ghazarian,G.,(2010).Study of the Tourism Destination Image Formation Process and the Factors Affecting It. Tourism Management Studies  Journal,  Volume 5, Issue 13,  Autumn, Page 139-168. [in Persian]
  • Woodside AG, Lysonski S (1989). A General Model of Traveler Destination Choice. J. Travel Research . Vol  27. No .4
  • Zanganeh,Y ,  Shamsolahzadeh,Y,. (2012). Evaluating and Analysis of Destination Image Effect in Development of Tourism Industry (Case Study: Tabriz Mega City) , Geography And Planning Journal.Volume 16, Issue 41, Autumn, Page 153-168 . [in Persian]