عنوان مقاله [English]
Informal settlements or slum dwellings is a general concept referring to urban residents who live in extremely poor and unsuitable living and housing conditions. Various theories regarding these kinds of settlements and how to deal with them in Iran have been proposed but none have been instrumental in seeking to deal with this phenomenon at root level and to allow integration with the rest of the city. The organization and empowerment of informal settlers is the most effective solution and best global practice in dealing with this problem. Organizations and governments through land acquisition ,improvement of living conditions of citizens, participation of legal residents in giving recreational facilities to these areas in order to formalize and legalize them primarily and secondly to exploit the degree of power and ability of residents to create a better living environment.
The rapid growth of urbanization and physical expansion of cities has caused new areas and areas under development to house rural migrants and the city poor without any urban planning or council management in the suburbs of cities and this phenomenon is called suburbanization. The city of Zabol has faced irregular migration of villagers and tribes because of successive droughts and the resulting devastation of their agriculture and animal husbandry stocks in rural areas of Sistan. These migrants have selected the suburbs and main entrances to Zabol city for settling because of low income and not having sufficient literacy and job skills and have thus created the new suburbans of Zabol. The number of Zabol suburban areas has increased from 2 to 14 from 1971 to 1986. At present, many problems have been created for urban management with the linkages of these areas to villages around Zabol city In this article, scores of main indices for rehabilitation of suburbanites such as scio- economic characteristics of the head of the households,housing conditions , the main problems existing in the suburban areas and suburbanite participation in improvement of their areas was first calculated.
Rapid urbanization growth of Iran with rural to urban migration has caused wide suburbanization. The first destination of rural migrants and border towns are larger cities in the region. Zabol city as a major city in Sistan has faced the growth of suburbanization particularly in surrounding roads and nearby villages in recent years. The purpose of this study was to examine the sociological factors of suburbanization and approaches for empowerment and a descriptive and analytical research method was used. Questionnaires were distributed in 14 suburban districts of Zabol and randomly among 316 suburbanites. The data was analyzed by Spss and Excel software. The results show that the main causes of suburbanization is massive migration from rural and small urban districts Zabol (92/09 percent) due to low income (21/52 percent), drought (19/30 percent) and unemployment. From the point of view of urban experts, trustees and residents of such communities to create empowerment, generating jobs through lending (42/85 percent) is the most important priority.