نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری در دانشگاه شهید رجایی

2 هیئت علمی دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی

چکیده

فضای باز در بافت‌های مسکونی فراتر از دیگر فضاهای مشترک مورد توجه کاربران آن قرار دارد که باعث شده در حوزه روان­شناسی و جامعه‌شناسی محیط جایگاه ویژه‌ای پیدا کند. همگام با ابداع روش‌ها و نیز ارتقای دانش در حوزه‌های علوم انسانی و محیطی این دو حوزه نیز با ظهور رویکردهای مختلف، گاه متضاد و گاه مکمل رشد یافته‌اند. نقاط و مفاهیم مشترک در این دو حوزه می‌توانند راه را برای ارتباط دانش در میان این دو برای افزایش کیفیت محیط تسهیل کنند. در این مقاله سعی شده تا یکی از مهمترین مفاهیم نهفته در حوزه روان­شناسی محیط یعنی دلبستگی مکانی برای افزایش سرمایه اجتماعی در محیط مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. معمولاً مطالعات در حوزه‌های فردی مانند دلبستگی مکانی و نیز معنای محیط به صورت فردی و یا تجربه و احساس فردی انجام شده و مطالعات در حوزه‌های جمعی نیز در روش‌ها و صورت‌های اجتماعی مورد بحث قرار گرفته است. در این مقاله با محوریت بهبود سرمایه اجتماعی و دلبستگی مکانی سعی شده تا بر چندبعدی بودن این موضوع توجه شود و نیز مدلی با کمک روش مدل­یابی و موضوعات اثرگذار بر دلبستگی به مکان، برای تعریف ارتباط میان سه مفهوم دلبستگی مکانی، مشارکت اجتماعی و سرمایه اجتماعی ارائه شود. برای آزمون این مدل از پیمایش و روش تحلیل "مدل­یابی معادلات ساختاریافته" استفاده شده که تکنیک تحلیل نیرومندی از خانواده رگرسیون چندمتغیری است. در نهایت مشخص شد که دلبستگی مکانی و مشارکت هر دو تأثیر قابل ملاحظه‌ای بر سرمایه اجتماعی دارند و همچنین مشارکت تأثیر زیادی بر تعلق دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Place attachment influences on social capital in common neighborhood environment (The case study: Nor residential complex in Tehran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Ramyar 1
  • Esmaiel Zarghami 2

1 PhD Candidate at Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University. Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning.

2 Associate Professor at Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University. Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning

چکیده [English]

Objectives:
Residential and neighborhood open spaces are more than a simple space. They are the most important places for people living in urban areas and are part of their sense of living. The literature of neighborhood environments has always been attempting to describe neighborhoods in terms of the criteria of their overall quality. Social and individual attachment are two major factors having an important effect on the overall quality of residents’ lives. Psychological and sociological aspects of people’s behavior in these spaces are addressed in the disciplines of environmental psychology and sociology. These two knowledge areas have evolved with development of new methods and knowledge improvements. In these two disciplines, different and almost independent, sometimes contradicting, theories have been proposed to in a complementary way. Finding a relationship between the proposed theories in these two fields is rarely considered. Investigating one of the most important concepts in environmental psychology, i.e. place attachment, and using this concept to improve social life of residential neighborhoods, this paper tries to establish a link between these separate disciplines. Most studies conducted on place attachment and meaning of place have been at the individual level addressing mostly individual emotions and experiences. Also, in the social domain, only social emotions and experiences have been discussed. Focusing on social participation and place attachment, this research first tries to show the complexity and multi-dimensionality of these concepts and then attempts to from a framework for social planning in common areas like residential open spaces.
Research method:
Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), as a vigorous regressive multivariate analysis technique, is used to examine the hypotheses in this research. SEM is a multivariate statistical analysis technique suitable for analyzing structural relationships. Its ability to define relationships between unobserved constructs (latent variables) and observable variables has made it a common justified method in social sciences. In the modeling method here, we use SEM that allows complex relationships between one or more independent variables and one or more dependent variables. 
Findings:
Based on the findings, place attachment and participation have a significant impact on social capital. The direct correlation between participation and social capital is stronger than that of place attachment, showing higher significance of participation in affecting social capital. Participation has also a great impact on place attachment.
Results:
Place attachment is a complex process that significantly affects social factors. It spreads and gets shaped over time. It is not only the place, but also social relationships produced in that place that support the maintenance and development of local community relations.  Places are formed by individuals, groups and neighborhoods, and neighborhood groups are shaped by their place. According to this research, certain places with a strong sense of identity, higher communication, social capital and collective actions such as participation create a higher sense of attachment in the residents.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • society
  • place attachment
  • participation
  • social capital
  • Tehran

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