تحلیل نقش جنسیت در الگوی رفت و آمد شهری مورد مطالعه: شهر زنجان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری

چکیده

امروزه، شهرها به دلایلی از جمله ساختار مکانی، روابط و مناسبات اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فضایی به سرعت در حال تغییر و تحول‌اند.  این موضوع بیانگر توجه اساسی به نگرش‌های جدید در مدیریت شهری است. از سویی  فضاهای شهری به عنوان تجلیگاه کالبدی شهر باید بسترهای لازم را در دسترسی و تأمین خدمات مورد نیاز استفاده‌کنندگان فراهم سازند و از دگر سو شرایطی را ایجاد کنند تا همه استفاده‌کنندگان و شهروندان  (اعم از مرد و زن) به گونه‌ای عادلانه از فضا بهره جویند. در همین راستا هدف پژوهش، تحلیل عوامل مؤثر بر رفتار یا الگوی سفر زنان در سطح شهر زنجان است. روش مطالعه توصیفی_تحلیلی و دارای ماهیتی کاربردی است. جامعه آماری تحقیق زنان 50- 15 ساله شهر و حجم نمونه 383 نفر بوده که از طریق نمونه­گیری تصادفی اطلاعات برداشت شده است. پردازش داده‌ها با نرم­افزار SPSS و آزمون کروسکال_والیس،  تحلیل واریانس صورت گرفته است. به منظور آزمون پایایی پرسشنامه‌ها از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شده است. اطلاعات مستخرج از پرسشنامه نشان دهنده وجود رابطه معنی­داری بین مالکیت خودرو، اشتغال، ساختار خانوار و رفتار سفر است. نتایج نشان می­دهد، ضریب بالای  مالکیت اتومبیل شخصی سبب تحرک بیشتر زنان شاغل در سطح شهر شده است. در این میان زنان دارای فرزند بیش از مردان در طول روز رانندگی می‌کنند و به منظور انجام امور روزانه وابستگی بیشتری به اتومبیل شخصی دارند؛ چرا که حمل­ونقل عمومی نتوانسته پاسخگوی نیازهای جابه­جایی و دسترسی سریع زنان در جامعه شهری باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyzing the role of gender in the pattern of urban commuting (the case study of Zanjan)

نویسندگان [English]

  • shahrzad moghadam 1
  • zohre fani 2
  • mohamad taghi razaviyan 2
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, the cities are rapidly transforming due to such reasons as the spatial structure, economic and social relations. Therefore, they need new approaches in urban management. Urban spaces are physical manifestation of citizens’ social needs and provide the necessary groundwork for access and provision of services required by users. They make the conditions for all users (men and women) to fairly use and enjoy the urban space. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the factors influencing women’s travel behavior in Zanjan. The study is an applied research and the methodology is descriptive-analytical. The statistical population includes 15-50 year old women in Zanjan. The sample size was determined using Cochran’s C test (384 questionnaires) and the samples were selected through random sampling method. In the present study, we first aimed at investigating and identifying urban traffic patterns based on theoretical foundations and 9 components. Questions are quantified on the Likert scale and Gutmann spectrum. Then, the patterns of women’s traffic in the city and its significant difference from the various forms of urban transport system are analyzed using these indicators. Data was analyzed in SPSS, using Kruskal-Wallis test, analysis of variance and correlation tests. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of questions. Information obtained from the questionnaires indicated a relationship between car ownership, occupation, family structure and travel behavior. Results show that owning a personal car leads to more mobility among employed women. In addition, women who have children are more dependent on personal cars than men, because they are not satisfied with the performance of urban public transportation. The results of this research indicate that women’s needs are not considered in urban transport planning. With the differentiation of functions in cities, transportation has affected the social and economic dimensions of women’s lives in the city.
In addition, couples with children mostly use personal cars for transportation. This is apparent from the great difference in the average personal car usage in the group of women with children owning personal cars (54.56) and women without children with personal car ownership (20.6). Employed women drive more than housewives; they tend to use personal cars. Higher comfort, speed and safety are the reasons for driving personal cars rather than using other urban transportation forms. Women’s dissatisfaction with the public transport system (0.033) can be one of the several factors in increased traffic congestion and dependence on personal cars in the urban transport system of Zanjan.  Housewives who own personal cars do not advise the use of public transport system. They will use alternative methods if the condition of public transportation improves.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gender equality
  • women
  • urban commuting
  • travel behavior
  • Zanjan
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