ارزیابی تطبیقی گذرگاه‌های همسطح و پل‌های عابر پیاده در قابلیت پیاده‌مداری خیابان‌های شهری (نمونه موردی: خیابان کریمخان زند شهر تهران)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار و عضو هیأت علمی گروه معماری، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شهر قدس، تهران، ایران

2 گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران

چکیده

وقوع انقلاب صنعتی، رشد شهرنشینی و افزایش جمعیت بر مساحت شهرها تأثیر شگرفی گذاشته و سبب افزایش سرسام‌آور تعداد اتومبیل‌ها و خیابان‌هایی شده که با هدف تسهیل حرکت سواره به وجود آمدند. یکی از مهم‌ترین مشکلات مطرح در خیابان‌های شهری، تداخل عابر پیاده و سواره در گذر عرضی است که دغدغه‌ای اساسی برای شهروندان به شمار می‌رود. برای حل این معضل، احداث پل‌های هوایی در ایران مورد حمایت ارگان‌های مربوطه قرار گرفته و قابلیتی به منظور افزایش پیاده‌مداری خیابان‌های شهری تصور شده است. این پژوهش کاربردی درصدد ارزیابی تطبیقی پل‌های هوایی با عبور همسطح از خیابان‌های شهری طبق دیدگاه پیاده­مداری است. پژوهش حاضر از نوع توصیفی_تحلیلی است و از روش تحلیل شبکه‌ای (ANP) برای ارزیابی یافته‌ها بهره گرفته شده است. بدین ترتیب پس از مطالعه مبانی نظری پژوهش به روش اسنادی_کتابخانه‌ای، معیارهای مناسب سنجش قابلیت پیاده­مداری به روش دلفی وزن‌دهی شده و جمع‌آوری اطلاعات میدانی به روش پیمایشی با تکمیل پرسشنامه از شهروندان در محدوده مورد مطالعه انجام گرفته است. اطلاعات کسب‌ شده برای ارزیابی در نرم‌افزار Super Decisions وارد گردید و سه امکان انتخاب برای شهروندان، شامل گذر از پل هوایی عادی، گذر به وسیله پل‌هوایی مکانیزه و عبور همسطح از خیابان برای ارزیابی پل‌های عابر در قابلیت پیاده‌مداری خیابان کریمخان زند شهر تهران در نظر گرفته شد. یافته‌ها نشان می‌دهد که براساس نقطه‌نظرات بهره‌برداران به ترتیب معیارهای امنیت و ایمنی، جا‌به‌جایی و دسترسی و شرایط فیزیکی، درجه اهمیت بالاتری نسبت به سایر معیارها در انتخاب پل‌های عابر پیاده برای گذر از عرض خیابان دارند. همچنین برخلاف تصور مدیران شهری، عبور عرضی همسطح با کسب امتیاز (A=0.36)، از مطلوبیت بیشتری نسبت به پل‌های هوایی و پل مکانیزه (B=0.33) از مزیت بیشتری به نسبت پل معمولی (C=0.30) در قابلیت پیاده‌مداری خیابان برخوردار است که از این‌رو تجدید نظری جدی در روند کنونی توسعه پل‌های عابر پیاده در کشور را ضروری می‌نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Evaluation of the crosswalks and overhead crossings in Walkability of Urban Streets (Case study: Karim Khan-e Zand Street of Tehran city)

نویسندگان [English]

  • khashyar kashanijou 1
  • hamed mohammadi 2
  • naeime salehi 2
1 profosser of architecture department, technical and engineering faculty, islamic azad university of Shahr-e Qods, tehran, iran
2 urbanity department, art and architecture faculty, islamic azad university of science and research, tehran, iran
چکیده [English]

Industrial revolution, urban growth and population increase have greatly affected the area of cities and have caused a staggering increase in the number of automobiles and streets built to facilitate automobile movement. One of the most important problems in urban streets is pedestrian-vehicle interaction at crossings which is a substantial concern for citizens. Installing footbridges has been supported by related organizations in Iran to solve this problem and increase walkability of the streets. In brief, walkability is the attraction level of places for pedestrians’ presence. Based on the opinion of many urban authorities, footbridge is one of the mobility facilities in crossing the streets. Bridges were used to cross the barriers since a long time ago. However, they were built for avoiding automobiles on the streets and their design were upgraded since about half a century ago. This applied research seeks to comparatively evaluate footbridges and pedestrian crossing in relation to walkability. For this purpose, Karim Khan-e-Zand Street in District 6 of Tehran, between Valiasr Square and Haft-e-Tir Square, was selected as the case study. It is a mechanized footbridge at the intersection with Hafez Street. An ordinary (non-mechanized) footbridge has been installed on it at the intersection of Kheradmand Street. The article is based on the analytical-descriptive method. The Analytic Network Process (ANP) is used to evaluate the findings. After studying the theoretical concepts of research through a documentary-library method, appropriate criteria for walkability assessment are weighted by the Delphi method and field data is collected through survey method using questionnaires distributed among 150 citizens. The obtained data was analyzed by Super Decision software package. Three options were considered for citizens to evaluate footbridges in terms of walkability of Karimkhan-e-Zand Street in Tehran: using non-mechanized footbridges, mechanized footbridges and pedestrian crossing. The findings show that security and safety, mobility, accessibility, and physical conditions are respectively more important than other criteria in selecting footbridges for crossing the street. Furthermore, the least important criteria are attraction and comfort of the path and its maintenance quality, respectively. Among the sub-indicators related to security and safety of paths, crime-related security and presence of others were selected as the most effective ones. The length of path is the most important factor while the slope and topography are the least important factors related to the physical condition of the path. Path lighting in night was selected as the most important sub-indicator related to facilities. Also, path continuity and ease of mobility can be referred to as the most important factors among sub-indicators of movement and accessibility. Finally, with regard to the walkability of streets, despite the opinion of urban managers, level crossing with a score of A=0.36 is more favorable than footbridges, and mechanized footbridge with a score of B=0.33 is more desirable than non-mechanized footbridges with a score of C=0.30. Therefore, it seems that a fundamental review is required in the current trend of development of footbridges in Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Walkability
  • Pedestrian
  • Footbridge
  • Street Crossing
  • Analytic Network Process (ANP)
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