عنوان مقاله [English]
Evaluation of every environment’s image is not just the result of impressions made by its external attributes on the mind of the observer. It is, however, created by the imagination of the observer. A city is lodged by a wide variety of people whose evaluation of the images they form in their mind is critical. The desirability of urban environments for various social strata, especially for women, depends on the relationship between human beings and the environment as well as their priorities and preferences. The distinctive characteristics of women in terms of feelings, sensation and evaluation of the environment should not be preferred over one anonther. To achieve a realistic and true viewpoint, it is impossible to ignore the interests and preferences of the citizens in relation to their living place. Since the relationship between an individual and their surrounding environment is formed in various levels such as the individual (e.g. feeling, perception, values, mental experiences, etc.) and social level (e.g. various social groups or the ones which are similar in terms of age and sex), it is better to examine the characteristics of various groups and social strata on the same level. The interpretations and mental images and meanings formed by women are unique depending on their values, priorities and experiences. There are some factors affecting the recognition of pleasantness attributes in urban space in women’s view, inducing what attracts women’s attention in the environments, how they are memorized, their mental image and their evaluation of the percieved space and the environmental preferences in selecting a desirable location. This article examines the factors affecting women mental image in order to allow the creation of a favorable environment from the perspective of this social group. It evaluates the preferences of their space. What is important is to identify and assess the main criteria for women in determining the optimum location with respect to the meaning derived from evaluated images. The aim of this research was to improve desirability of the environment from the perspective of women as well as their right to choose and evaluate the image of public spaces of Tehran.
The research method is based on the techniques developed by Jack L. Nasar. In Nasar’s study, a phenomenological hermeneutic approach is used to describe the connotations and emotions image representation of women in the experience of urban spaces desirable / undesirable and nature of development of the city of Tehran. For this purpose, 15 in-depth interviews were conducted through purposive sampling. Interviews were recorded and the obtained data was written in the form of tables. Repeatability analysis was performed on the data. The results indicate that the optimal site selected through women’s mental image of highly desirable locations is associated with the concepts of freedom, justice, place dignity, socio-cultural prestige, historical identity, beauty, being stylish and full of details, quiet and cozy, vast but with privacy, green, happy mood and health.
- Appleyard, D. (1970). Styles and methods of structuring a city. Environment and behavior.
- Bagheri, N. (2014). Mapping women in Tehran's public spaces: a geo-visualization perspective. Gender, Place & Culture, 21(10), 1285-1301.
- Asadpour, A., Faizi, M., Mozaaffar, F., Behzadfar, M. (2015). Typology of models and comparative study of methods in recording mental images and cognitive maps from the environment. The Monthly Scientific Journal of Bagh- E Nazar, 12(33), 13-22. [in persian]
- Brunswik, E. (1956). Perception and the RepresentativeDesign of Psychological Experiments, Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Canter, David. 2013. Place Psychology. Translated by Maryam Amiri Khah. Tehran: space[in persian]
- Cross, N. (2001). Designerly ways of knowing: Design discipline versus design science. Design issues, 17(3), 49-55.
- Dehkhoda, A. A. (1998). Dehkhoda dictionary. Tehran: Tehran University. [in persian]
- Francescato, D., & Mebane, W. (1973). How citizens view two great cities: Milan and Rome. na.
- Ganji, H. (2003). General psychology. Tehran: Roshd publication. [in persian]
- Gifford, R., (1997a) Environmental Perception and Understanding, Trans. By Ms. Nasrin Dehbashi, Architecture & Culture Quarterly Nos. 2 and 3. [in persian]
- Gifford, R., (1997b) Psychology for Residential Environments, Trans. By Dr. Vahid Ghobadian, Architecture & Culture Quarterly Nos. 2 and 3 . [in persian]
- Gifford, R., (1997c) Personal Space, Trans. By Ms. Shabnam Sharaei, Architecture & Culture Quarterly Nos. 2 and 3. [in persian]
- Gilligan, C. (1982). In a Different Voice (Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press).
- Golchin, P., Naroei, B., & Irani, B. H. (2014). Study of Users Preferences Based on Visual Quality Evaluation: The Case of Zahedan Mellat Urban Forest Park. [in persian]
- Gould, P., & White, R. (1974). Mental maps (Harmondsworth). England, and New York: Penguin.
- Gulick, J. (1963). Images of an Arab City. Journal of the American Planning Association 29: 179–198
- Habib, F. (2006). Urban Landscape Design History. Abadi : Winter 2006 , Volume of the course , No. 18 (53) ; 48 -53[in persian]
- Habibi, S. M. (2008). Urban space, event-oriented life and collective memory. Soffeh Journal. 28(9), 16-21.
- Handy, S., Boarnet, M., Ewing, R. and Killingsworth, R. E. (2002). How the Built Environment Affects Physical Activity: Views From Urban Planning. American Journal of Preventative Medicine 23: 64–73.
- Hart, R.A., and Moore, G.T. (1976). The Development of Spatial Cognition: A Review. In Downs, R.M. and Stea, D. (Eds.) Image and Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior, Chicago, IL: Aldine.
- Harrison, J. A., & Sarre, P. (1975). Personal construct theory in the measurement of environmental images. Environment and Behavior, 7(1), 3.
- Herzog, T. R., Kaplan, S., & Kaplan, R. (1982). The prediction of preference for unfamiliar urban places. Population and Environment, 5(1), 43-59.
- Jazani, N. (2008). An analytical study of employment of educated women in Iranian labor force. International Journal of Psychology, 43(3), 777.
- Kaplan, R. and Kaplan, S. (1989). Experience of Nature. New York: Cambridge.
- Lang, J. (1987). Creating Architectural Theory: TheRole of the Behavioral Sciences in EnvironmentalDesign. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
- Lang, J. (2009). Creating Architectural Theory: The Role of the Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Design (A. Einifar, Trans.), Tehran: Tehran University Press. [in persian]
- Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city (Vol. 11). MIT press.
- Lynch, K. (2004). Image of City, Translated by Manouchehr Mozayani, Tehran. [in persian]
- Mac Andrew Francis, T. (1992). Environmental Psychology, translator Reza Mahmoudi, publishing Zarbaf principle, Tehran. [in persian]
- Milgram, S., Jodelet, D., PROSHANSKY, H., ITTELSON, W., & RIVLIN, L. (1976). Environmental psychology: people and their physical settings.)2nd ed.,pp.104-124).New York:Holt,Rinehart & Winston.
- Moeen, M. (1971). Moeen’s Persian Dictionary. J. Shahidi. [in persian]
- Nasar, J. L. (1998). The evaluative image of the city. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Nasar, Jack. L., (2014). Evaluative image of the city, Trans: Asadi Mahalchali, Masoud; Armanshahr, Tehran. [in persian]
- Pakzad, J. (2006). Image of the City Lynch saw, Abadi Publishing, No. 16(53).
- Pakzad, J. (2009). Aesthetics in architecture. Tehran, Shahid Beheshti University. [in persian]
- Pakzad, J. (2010). An Intellectual History of Urbanism 3: From Space to Place. First publish, Tehran: Utopia, published by Shahidi. [in persian]
- Pakzad, J., & Bozorg, H. (2012). The Alphabet of Psychological Environment for Designers. [in persian]
- Partovi, P. (2008). Phenomenology of place. Tehran: The Iranian academy of art. [in persian]
- Passini, R., Rainville, C., Marchand and Yves, J.(1998). Wayfi nding and Dementia: Some Recent Research Findings and a New Look at Design. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 15: 133–151.
- Pease, A., & Pease, B. (2016). Why Men Don't Listen & Women Can't Read Maps. Translated by:Rashid N, Goldar N. 9th ed. Tehran: Asim.[in persian]
- Perkins, D.D. and Taylor, R.B. (1996). Ecological Assessments of Community Disorder: Their Relationship to Fear of Crime and Theoretical Implications. American Journal of Community Psychology 24: 63–107.
- Petzinger, T. (1999). A New Model for the Nature of Business: It’s Alive!, The Wall Street Journal, February 26.
- Polic, M., Repovs, G., Natek, K., Klemencic, M., Kos, D., Ule, M., ... & Kucan, A. (2005). A cognitive map of Slovenia: Perceptions of the regions. International Journal of Psychology, 40(1), 27-35.
- Rappaport, A. (2005). The meaning of the built environment. Translation by Farah Habib. Urban planning and processing company Publications, Tehran. [in persian]
- Ranjbar H, Haghdoost A, Salsali M, Khoshdel A, Soleimani M, Bahrami N. Sampling in qualitative research: A Guide for beginning . Ann Mil Health Sci Res. 2012; 10 (3) :238-250. [in persian]
- Russell, J.A., and Snodgrass, J. (1989). Emotion and the Environment. In Stokols, D. and Altman, I. (Eds.), Handbook of Environmental Psychology (Vol. 1), New York: John Wiley.
- Saarinen, T. F. (1969). Perception of Environment, Resource Paper No. 5.
- Shahcheraghi, A., & Bandarabad, A. (2015). Environed in environment. Tehran: Iranian academic center in Tehran. [In Persian]
- Shahinrad, M., M. Rafieian, et al. (2015). Assessing Women’s Visual Preferences towards Tehran Urban Spaces. iricss 17(1): 10-24. [in persian]
- Shahshahani, S. (1990). Women in the Kinship Structure of Iran. Structures and Strategies: Women, Work and Family, 3, 243. [in persian]
- Snodgrass, J., & Russell, J. A. (1986). Mapping the mood of a city. In 21st Congress of Applied Psychology, Jerusalem, Israel.
- Sternberg ,Rj.(2013). Sternberg K. Cognitive psychology ,Translated by: Kharazi K, Hejazi E. 3 rd ed. Tehran: Samt. [in persian]
- Trieb, M. (1974). Theorie der Stadtgestaltung. Antero Markelin und Michael Trieb (Hg.): Mensch und Stadtgestalt. Beiträge zu Aufgaben und Problemen der Stadtgestaltung. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 54-69.
Ward, L. M., & Russell, J. A. (1981). The psychological representation of molar physical environments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110(2), 121.