سنجش شاخص‌های کالبدی مؤثر بر مؤلفه زیبایی‌شناسی در توسعه‌های شهری معاصر (مطالعه موردی: نواحی آماده‌سازی شده در شهر یزد)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده هنر و معماری دانشگاه یزد

2 مدیریت معماری و شهرسازی اداره کل راه و شهرسازی استان یزد

3 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه یزد

4 کارشناس ارشد طراحی شهری، دانشگاه ازاد اسلامی، واحد یزد

چکیده

در طرح‌های آماده‌سازی زمین به‌عنوان مهم‌ترین الگوی توسعه شهری دهه‌های اخیر باوجود تأکید بر برنامه‌ریزی کاربری زمین، جمعیت و حمل‌ونقل، توجه کمتری به کیفیت‌های محیطی شده است. همین امر سبب گردیده تا این بافت‌های شهری شرایط بسیار سطح پایینی از جنبه‌های کیفی محیط و سیما و منظر شهری دارا باشند و در نتیجه نتوانند برای ساکنان خود، محیطی جذاب و آرام ایجاد کنند. پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی و سنجش شاخص‌های کالبدی مؤثر بر مؤلفه زیبایی‌شناسی از دیدگاه شهروندان ساکن در سه محدوده که در دهه‌های اخیر و در نتیجه طرح‌های آماده‌سازی زمین شکل ‌گرفته‌اند، انجام شده است. این پژوهش از نوع پژوهش‌های کاربردی و با روش پیمایشی و همبستگی و به کمک پرسشنامه و مطالعات اسنادی انجام شده است. حجم نمونه با استفاده از فرمول کوکران معادل 100 خانوار در هر کدام از مناطق مورد مطالعه برآورد شده و از شیوه نمونه‌گیری تصادفی نیز برای تکمیل پرسشنامه­ها استفاده شده است. روایی ظاهری پرسشنامه به کمک اساتید دانشگاه یزد و پایایی آن به‌وسیله آزمون آلفای کرونباخ تأیید گردید. به ‌منظور تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها از آزمون‌های آماری رگرسیون خطی چندگانه و آزمون همبستگی پیرسون استفاده شده و از آزمون‌های دوربین واتسون جهت بررسی هم خطی متغیرها و کولموگراف_اسمیرنوف برای تشخیص نرمال بودن توزیع داده‌های پژوهش و همچنین برای تبیین معنی­داری مدل رگرسیونی چندگانه از روش تحلیل واریانس ANOVA استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از آن است که از شاخص‌های بیست­گانه مطالعه شده، در هر کدام از محدوده‌ها تمامی شاخص‌ها دارای اثر مستقیم و معنی­‌دار بر مؤلفه زیبایی‌شناسی هستند. به ‌صورت کلی شاخص‌های عدم تکرار و یکنواختی بدنه‌ها، تناسب عرض معابر شهری و پیوستگی جداره مهم‌ترین شاخص‌های مشترک مؤثر بر مؤلفه زیبایی‌شناسی بوده و دارای رابطه مستقیم و معنی­دار از دیدگاه شهروندان هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Measuring physical indices affecting the aesthetic component in the contemporary urban developments (Case Study: Site and Services Projects in Yazd)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Montazerolhodjah 1
  • B N 2
  • mojtaba sharifnejad 3
  • Z F 4
1 دانشکده هنر و معماری دانشگاه یزد
چکیده [English]

Rapid sprawl of urban areas in Iranian cities in the last few decades was the result of two population growth factors: (1) natural increase in population, and (2) migration to urban areas. These conditions are aggravated during times of transition from a pre-industrial society to an industrial one. This trend has led to a shortfall in many sectors, primarily housing. One of the innovative schemes in response to this problem in many cities like Yazd, which has received wide acknowledgement, has been “sites-and-services” scheme. In a sites-and-services scheme, the preparation of land and procurement of infrastructure and services are the responsibility of the project authorities. Depending on the investment made, resources available, the implementing agency or degree of organization of the beneficiaries, sites-and-services schemes were activated in a number of differing ways in Yazd. These types of schemes provide only what the households cannot easily get or afford themselves: a plot of land with basic, essential utilities (clean water, sanitation, flood protection, security lighting, etc.) and municipal services (waste collection, schools, etc.). Sites-and-services projects have formed the main pattern of urban development during the past decades in Yazd. However, many of these projects have had a planning oriented process, have just focused on land use planning, population density and transportation and have ignored the environmental qualities. These condition has created urban textures with very poor quality, image and townscape. Although there are references to the aesthetic aspect and its role in urban contexts in some of these layouts, what is witnessed in reality is discrepancies between buildings and spaces and, therefore, their lack of visual appeal. Meanwhile, the visual environment in urban contexts is composed of a sophisticated structure of physical and non-physical elements; it is the cognitive joint between humans and their environments; it can facilitate people’s perception and evaluation of their living context and boost their environmental comprehensibility. The objective of this research is to assess the physical indicators affecting the aesthetic component in contemporary urban developments formed as a result of site and services projects during the past four decades in different regions of Yazd. The related literature was reviewed to collect information and determine the study criteria regarding the physical indicators of aesthetic component in urban areas. The results from the literature review and observation survey served very well in codifying the variables and attributes for developing the questionnaire to examine the resident’s perception of the aesthetic components in their neighborhoods.  The questionnaire survey was done in 3 selected regions (region 10 in Imamshahr, 92 hectare project in Azadshahr and 93 hectare Kowsar project in Safayeh) that have been formed in difference times. A sample of 100 participants was selected randomly from residents in each region. Pearson correlation and regression analyses were performed. According to this study, the effect of any physical indicator is different from a region to another. Nevertheless, the width of the road and façade continuity has been mentioned in all the three studied regions. After that, visual balance and architectural style have an important role in the aesthetic component. The findings may also be used to improve the site and services scheme strategies and design guidelines regarding future urban development in Yazd and other cities in Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • environmental quality
  • Aesthetic Component
  • Physical Indicator
  • Site and Services Scheme
  • Yazd
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