مقایسه تطبیقی نقش عوامل محیطی-کالبدی بر میزان سلامت اجتماعی در دو محله سنتی و جدید (مطالعه موردی: محله های دردشت و ملاصدرای اصفهان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه هنر اصفهان

2 استاد/دانشگاه

چکیده

ویژگی­های کالبدی و محیطی در کنار دیگر عوامل بر ابعاد مختلف سلامت شهروندان تأثیرگذارند تا آنجا که امروزه سلامت به عنوان یکی از ابعاد طراحی شهری برشمرده شده و انتظار می­رود این رشته با ماهیتی میان رشته­ای و تأکید و تمرکز بر جنبه­های کالبدی_عملکردی محیط در کنار علوم دیگر در راستای تأمین و ارتقای سلامت شهروندان در تمام ابعاد آن و از جمله سلامت اجتماعی ایفای نقش نماید. در همین راستا هدف کلی این مقاله بررسی و مقایسه تأثیر ویژگی­ها (شاخص­های) کالبدی_محیطی بر سلامت اجتماعی شهروندان است. برای دستیابی به این هدف، با استفاده از روش تحقیق رگرسیون چندگانه (مدل گام به گام) در دو محله قدیمی (ارگانیک) و جدید (شطرنجی) در اصفهان، نخست همبستگی میان شاخص­های بیان شده (متغیرهای مستقل) و سلامت اجتماعی (متغیر وابسته) بررسی و سپس شاخص­های مؤثرتر در پیش­بینی متغیر وابسته شناسایی شدند. براساس نتایج پژوهش از کل شاخص­های مورد نظر تعدادی به صورت مشترک در هر دو محله و تعدادی فقط در هر محله، همبستگی دو به دو با سلامت اجتماعی شهروندان را نشان داده­اند. همچنین یافته­های پژوهش نشان داد، تعداد محدودی از شاخص­های دارای همبستگی مشخص شده به صورت معناداری قابلیت پیش­بینی سلامت اجتماعی (متغیر وابسته) و قرارگیری در معادله رگرسیون پیش­بینی متغیر وابسته را دارند. در نهایت مشخص شد که در محله دردشت، شاخص­های وجود فضاهای گردهمایی و پاتوق­ها، شمول­گرایی فضاهای عمومی، امنیت مناسب و جرم­خیزی پایین، همبستگی اجتماعی، حمایت اجتماعی و بومی بودن ساکنان نقش اساسی در پیش­بینی سلامت اجتماعی شهروندان داشته و این شاخص­ها در محله ملاصدرا امنیت مناسب و جرم­خیزی پایین، حس تعلق به محله، میزان سواد (تحصیلات)، شمول­گرایی فضاهای عمومی، امنیت و ایمنی کودکان در فضاهای عمومی، منظر مطلوب فضاهای عمومی، پوشش گیاهی و میزان درگیری و نزاع­های قومی هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative analysis of the Role of Environmental-Physical Factors on the Level of Social Health in Two Traditional and New Neighborhoods, Case Study: Mulla Sadra and Dardasht Districts of Isfahan

نویسندگان [English]

  • F R 1
  • B Z 2
چکیده [English]

Nowadays people’s health (physical, mental and social) is one of the main dilemmas of societies living in metropolitan areas. In this regard, urban design, as one of the influential disciplines among many others, seeks to find solutions to help solving these dilemmas by focusing on the physical and functional dimensions of the urban environment. The main questions of this paper are: what are the effective physical-environmental attributes on the social health of citizens and which of them are more effective? Accordingly, the main objective of this paper is to study and compare the effects of physical- environmental attributes on people’s social health. To achieve this aim, multiple regression method was applied to study, analyze and test the assumptions in order to (1) measure correlation among the mentioned indicators and social health and (2) to identify more effective indicators to predict social health.
The study results demonstrate a few common indicators in both neighborhoods; some indicators in distinct neighborhoods have mutual correlation with social health. However, some of the indicators have no significant correlation with social health, these include age, job activities, suitable lighting of public spaces and car ownership. Some indicators have the most correlation in both neighborhoods; they have more certain correlation with social public life of people .These indicators include security and low crime rate in neighborhood, inclusiveness of public spaces, cohesion among neighborhood residents, safety and security of children in public spaces, sense of attachment to the neighborhood, education and townscape quality. In particular, security and low crime rates, sense of attachment to the neighborhood and inclusiveness of public spaces have a high correlation with resident’s social health.
Results of the third assumption indicated that there were some differences among correlations between independent variables and social health in the two neighborhoods, one with a historical and traditional social and physical construction and another being a completely new grid neighborhood. Investigating the fourth assumption in the last stage, a limited number of indicators was extracted from the indicators with mutual correlation with social health to predict social health and form the regression equation. Regression results for Dardasht neighborhood indicate that only four indicators (among the indicators with a significant correlation with social health) are obtained as significant indicators in the regression results. Only the following indicators have enough significant predictive role for the dependent variable (social health): availability of gathering spaces, inclusiveness of public space, suitable security and low crime rate, social cohesion among neighborhood residents. However, there is not much difference between coefficients. The highest predicted effect is related to inclusiveness with 1.921 unstandardized coefficient B and the least predictive effect is related to social cohesion among community groups with 1.571 unstandardized coefficient B. The significant indicators in the regression equation for Mulla-Sadra neighborhood are more than those for Dardasht neighborhood, i.e. there are enough significant effect to predict the dependent variable. These indicators include security and crime rate, sense of attachment to the neighborhood, education level, inclusiveness of urban spaces, safety and security of children in public spaces, and suitable townscape of public spaces. Security and inclusiveness have the most coefficient value (2.345 and 1.939, respectively) and suitable townscape has the least coefficient value (1/374).
The results indicate that only two indicators, security and inclusiveness, are common among regression results for the two neighborhoods, indicating the highest generalizability of these two indicators regarding different social and physical attributes of these two neighborhoods.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Physical indicators of the environment
  • Public health
  • Mulla Sadra neighborhood
  • Dardasht neighborhood
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