تبیین فرایند تحقق منظر پایدار در شهر معاصر با بهره‌گیری از نظریه شهرسازی منظر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دکترای شهرسازی، گروه شهرسازی، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران.

2 استاد گروه شهرسازی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، ایران.

چکیده

در دهه‌های اخیر نگرش‌های متعددی در رابطه با شکل‌گیری «منظر پایدار» در شهرها مطرح و پژوهش‌های گوناگونی در این زمینه انجام شده است. اما آنچه تاکنون قابل تشخیص است، عدم توجه به منظر و رویکرد کل­نگر آن در حوزه شهرسازی به‌عنوان «رکن اساسی طراحی شهری» است. بر این مبنا تفکر «شهرسازی منظر» با درک منظر به‌مثابه یک پایگاه نظری جدید و«کلی‏نگری» به شهر و پذیرش «عدم قطعیت» شهر معاصر، عرصه موضوعی جدیدی را در رابطه با طراحی منظر در ادبیات جهانی مطرح نموده است. از این رو پژوهش حاضر درصدد تبیین فرایند طراحی منظر شهری پایدار در شرایط متغیر کنونی (در دو بعد رویه و محتوا) با استفاده از رویکرد مبتنی بر نظریه «شهرسازی منظر» است. در این راستا پرسش‌ اصلی پژوهش این‌گونه مطرح می‌شود که «منظر پایدار» در چارچوب نظری تفکر «شهرسازی منظر»، براساس ماهیت پیچیده شهر معاصر، چگونه تبیین شده و تحقق می‌یابد. متأثر از ماهیت پرسش پژوهش و برای رسیدن به هدف مورد نظر، از روش تحلیل محتوا و تفسیر یافته‌ها استفاده شده است. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش بیانگر آن است که مفهوم پایداری در تفکر «شهرسازی منظر» هم به معنای «ثبات» ساختار اصلی شهر و هم به مفهوم «تغییر» فعالیت و برنامه‌ها مطابق با تغییر شرایط و تقاضاها در طول زمان است. بنابراین می‌توان از چارچوب نظری تفکر «شهرسازی منظر» با ویژگی «عدم قطعیت» و «تغییر» در طراحی «عرصه‌های باز» درون و پیرامون شهر و همچنین «محله‌های شهری» که از قابلیت «انطباق» و «انعطاف‌پذیری» بیشتری برخوردارند، استفاده نمود. در این زمینه تأکید بر برنامه‌ریزی از پایین به بالا، ابعاد مشارکتی، طراحی فرایند محور و برگشت‌پذیر (با قابلیت اصلاح و بازبینی)، تفکری فرارشته‌ای در مواجهه با منظر، همراه با نگرشی از مقیاس کلان به خرد در حوزه منظر شهری و توجه به ارزش‌های موجود در آن باید مدنظر قرار بگیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explaining the Process of Sustainable Landscape Realization in the Contemporary City Utilizing Landscape Urbanism Theory

نویسندگان [English]

  • mojde erfani 1
  • Hossein Bahrainy 2
  • Manouchehr Tabibian 2
1 Department of urban planning, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.
2 Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Lack of attention to the “dynamic” concept of the landscape, the “holistic” approach to it, and the use of conventional methods in the study of urban development projects has shaped an urban landscape that is unable to meet the demands of its inhabitants over time. Therefore, considering the ineffectiveness and divergence of the study method in the urban development plans of Iran and given the variability of today’s city, it is necessary to adopt an appropriate approach to today’s urban conditions. Landscape Urbanism theory, with a general approach to the concept of landscape and accepting the uncertainty of the evolving city, has raised a new field in the global literature. This theory, with an approach to confronting the complexities of the contemporary city, sees the “landscape” as an active phenomenon over time and emphasizes functional dimensions beyond its purely aesthetic aspects.
At present, there are criticisms about putting the theoretical aspects of this approach to practice. Since the highest application of this theory is in the field of landscape architecture, most of its criticisms relate to the field of urbanism knowledge, the application of its theoretical framework to the city scale and the lack of executive instances. In this regard, the correct understanding and analysis of the theoretical issues of urban planning and its adaptation to the concept of sustainability, as a basis for thinking, can reveal its hidden dimensions. It is clear that further research on the application of this theory, along with the formulation of design principles, is an important factor in reducing the gap between theory and practice, solving structural problems and identifying the potential of this new approach to urban planning.
The purpose of this research is to describe the theoretical framework of “landscape urbanism” theory as a new approach in urban design that aims at achieving a sustainable landscape. This study tries to emphasize the “procedure” and “substantive” dimensions in the design of sustainable urban landscape while developing the theoretical framework of this approach based on sustainability concepts. In this regard, the present paper seeks to confirm the following statements:
- Understanding the dynamic concept of landscape and its “holistic approach” in today’s urban conditions leads to the formation of a landscape that can be “sustained” on a time scale.
- The “stability” of the city’s main structure, along with the “flexibility” of open urban areas and urban neighborhoods against the changing conditions and needs of the community, can provide the ground for the formation of a sustainable landscape in the present situation.
- The approach of “landscape urbanism”, as an efficient approach in the studies of urban development projects in Iran, in addition to “substantive dimensions”, needs a “infrastructure” for realizing its theoretical framework in the field of action.
Based on the results of the research, the concept of sustainability in the theory of landscape urbanism includes the “stability” of the main structure of the city and the “change” of activities and programs proportionate to the changing conditions over time. Thus, the theoretical framework of landscape urbanization, with the features of “uncertainty” and “change”, can be used to design “open spaces” within and around the city as well as “urban neighborhoods” that are more “adaptable” and “flexible”. In this regard, the emphasis is on participatory planning from the bottom up, the design of the process-oriented with an integrated approach from regional to local scale in the urban landscape, and on the local identity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sustainability
  • Landscape
  • Sustainable Landscape
  • Landscape Urbanism
  • Contemporary City

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