عنوان مقاله [English]
Existing experience suggests that the perceptual environment of citizens plays an essential role in the perception of the quality of urban environments. Given the wide variations in urban life, in particular urban life in Tabriz as a metropolis, it is particularly important to recognize the quality of urban and neighborhood environment. Therefore, Golshahr and Parvaz neighborhoods are considered as newly designed neighborhoods (less than 30 years old) with appropriate architectural and urban spaces and a high level of facilities and services.
This paper presents an instrument for measuring perceived residential environment quality in urban environments. This instrument consists of 11 scales categorized into four criteria including spatial aspects, human aspects, functional aspects, and contextual aspects. The spatial aspects include three scales: architectural-planning space, organization and accessibility of roads, and green space. The human aspects involve one scale: people and social relations. Functional aspects include four scales: welfare, recreational, commercial, and transport services. Contextual aspects cover three scales: pace of life, environmental health, and upkeep. The paper aims to identify and measure perceived residential environment quality and improve the related psychometric qualities. Cognitive psychology is the conceptual framework of this research that focuses on environmental perception.
This paper attempts to answer the following questions: 1- What level is the residents’ perceived quality of Tabriz neighborhoods (Golshahr and Parvaz regions)? 2- What factors affact residents’ perceived quality of Tabriz neighborhoods?
The research method is descriptive-experimental and the data collection instrument is a questionnaire including 11 scales based on different dimensions of the research variables. The questionnaire comprised of 62 questions in the form of a five-point Likert scale. It was clustery distributed among 250 residents of Golshahr and Parvaz regions in Tabriz. The data was analyzed using the one-sample t-test, paired comparison, multiple regression analysis and path model analysis in SPSS software.
Results confirm the factorial structure of the scale and indicate that, among the individual factors, sex and ownership affect the residents’ perceived quality of the neighborhood. Among the four main components, the social and then contextual components have a greater impact on the perceived quality of the neighborhood, while these two dimensions have the lowest score among the inhabitants of the neighborhoods. Among the scales, the green space scale from spatial aspect, discretion and civility from the human aspect, transportation services from the functional aspect, and upkeep and maintenance from the contextual aspect have the highest impact on the residents’ perceived quality of the neighborhood. Thus, the impact on the perceived quality of neighborhood increases when moving from the physical to the social-psychological-mental space, but the emphasis of the decisions of urban planners are more on the spatial and functional dimensions. Another interesting result is that, in addition to the social dimension, attention should be paid to the contextual dimension of the neighborhoods in order to promote inhabitants’ perceived quality of the neighborhood.
- Afacan, Y., (2015), Resident satisfaction for sustainable urban regeneration, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer, Vol 168, No 4, pp.220-234.
- Amerigo, M., (2002), A psychological approach to the study of residential satisfaction. In book: Residential Environments, Editors: Aragones, J.I., Francescato, G., Garling, T. (Eds), Bergin & Garvey, Westport, CT, 81-99.
- Abbaszadeh, S.; Gouhari, F.and Abasalt Asghari, R. (2016). Survey the Effect of Environmental Quality Factors on Residents Satisfaction in Residential Complexes in Mashhad, Pajouheshhaye Joghrafiayeh Barnameriziyeh Shahri Journal, 4th time, No. 4, pp:653- 671. [in Persian]
- Allahyari, S.; Jafari, M., and Shokrghozar, A. (2018). Measuring the quality of residential environment of urban neighborhoods (Case study: Khorramshahr and Ziabri neighborhoods of Rasht city), Pajouheshhaye Joghrafiayeh Barnameriziyeh Shahri Journal, 5th time, No. 1, pp:107- 127. [in Persian]
- Bonaiuto, M., Bonnes, M.,(1996), Multiplace analysis of the urban environment: a comparison between a large and a small Italian city. Environ. Behav. 28, 699–747.
- Bonaiuto, M., Aiello, A., Perugini, M., Bonnes, M., Ercolani, A.P., )1999(. Multidimensional perception of residential environment quality and neighbourhood attachment in the urban environment. J. Environ. Psychol. 19, 331–352.
- Bonaiuto, M. , Fornara, F. & Bonnes, M. , (2003), Indexes of perceived residential environment quality and neighborhood attachment in urban environments: a confirmation study on the city of Rome, Landscape and Urban Planning 65, 41-52.
- Bonaiuto, M., Fornara, F., Ariccio, S., Cancellieri, U. G., & Rahimi, L. (2015), Perceived residential environment quality indicators (PREQIs) relevance for UN-HABITAT City Prosperity Index (CPI), Habitat International, 45, pp. 53-63.
-Bonnes, M., Bonaiuto, M., Ercolani, A.P., De Rosa, A.M., (1991). Residential satisfaction in the big city: a transactional-contextual study. In: Bonnes, M. (Ed.), Urban Ecology Applied to the City of Rome. MAB-UNESCO Project 11, Progress Report No. 4. MAB Italia, Roma, pp.127–149.
- Bowler, D.E., Buyung-Ali, L.M., Knight, T.M., Pullin, A.S., (2010), A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits to health of exposure to natural environments. BMC Public Health 10, 456.
- Bahreini, H. (1998). Urban design process, Tehran: University of Tehran. [in Persian]
- Barati, N. and Kakavand, E. (2013). Comparative assessment of the quality of the urban housing environment, with an emphasis on the citizens' mental image (Case study: Qazvin city),Honarhaye ziba Journal, 18th time, No. 3, pp:32- 25. [in Persian]
- Colman, J .(1987) .Opportunities for innovation in Urban Design Education, Journal of Australian planner, Vol. 25, pp. 28-31.
- Cummins, S., Curtis, S., Diez-Roux, A.V., Macintyre, S., (2007), Understanding and representing `place' in health research: a relational approach. Soc. Sci. Med. Vol. 65, No.9, pp.1825–1838.
- Carmona, M.; Tiesdell, S.; Heath, T., and Oc, T. (2009). Public Places Urban Spaces, The Dimensions of Urban Design, (Gharaei, F., Translator). Tehran: Tehran Art University. [in Persian]
- Dekker, K., de Vos, S., Musterd, S. & van Kempen, R. (2011), Residential satisfaction in housing estates in European cities: A multi-level research approach, Housing Studies, 26(04), pp. 479–499.
-Francescato, G., (2002), Residential satisfaction research: the case for and against. In: Aragones, J.I., Francescato, G., Gärling, T. (Eds.), Residential Environments. Choice Satisfaction and Behavior. Bergin & Garvey, Westport, CT, pp. 15–34.
- Gifford, R. & Steg, L. (2005), Sustainable transportation and quality of life, Journal of
Transport Geography, Vol 13, No 1, pp.59-69.
- Gifford, R. (1998). Perception and Environmental Cognition, (Dehbashi, N., Translator). Memari va Farhang Journal, No. 2&3, pp: 5-23. [in Persian]
- Gidlow, C., Cochrane T., Davey RC., Smith G., Fairburn J., (2010), Relative importance of physical and social aspects of perceived neighbourhood environment for self-reported health. Prev Med, 51 (2), 157- 163.
- Huang, Z. & Du, X. (2015), Assessment and determinants of residential satisfaction with public housing in Hangzhou, China, Habitat International, 47: 218-230.
- Hanak, T., Marovic, I., Aigel, P. (2015), Perception of Residential Environment in Cities: a Comparative Study, Procedia Engineering, 117: 495-501.
- Ismail, F., Jabar, I.L., Janipha, N.A.I., Razali, R. (2015), Measuring the Quality of Life in Low Cost Residential Environment, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 168: 270-279.
- Lewicka, M., (2011), Place attachment: How far have we come in the last 40 years?, Journal of Environmental Psychology 31 , pp: 207-230.
- Lee, Y.-J., (2008), Subjective quality of life measurement in Taipei, Building and Environment, NO. 43(7), pp: 1205-1215.
- Lee, A. C. K., & Maheswaran, R. (2011), The health benefits of urban green spaces: A review of the evidence. Journal of Public Health, 33, 212-222.
- Lansing, J. B. and R.W. Marans.,(1969), Evaluation of Neighborhood Quality, AIP Journal, 11, 195-199.
- Leslie, E., Cerin, E., (2008), Are perceptions of the local environment related to neighborhood satisfaction and mental health in adults? Prev. Med. 47, 273–278.
- Lovejoy, K., Handy, S., Mokhtarian, P. (2010). Neighborhood satisfaction in suburban versus traditional environments: An evaluation of contributing characteristics in eight California neighborhoods, Landscape and Urban Planning 97, 37-48.
- Mohit, M. A.; Ibrahim, M. & Rashid. Y. R. (2010), Assessment of residential satisfaction in newly designed public low-cost housing in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Habitat International, Vol 34, No 1, pp. 18-27.
- Motallebi, G. (2001). Environmental psychology New knowledge in the service of architecture and urban design, Honarhaye Ziba Journal, No. 10, pp: 52-67. [in Persian]
- Moayeni, M. and Eslami, S. (2012). An analytical approach to the quality of contemporary residential environment, Hoviat e shahr, 6th time, No. 10, pp: 47-58. [in Persian]
- Mohandesin e Moshaver e Naghsh e Mohit. (2013). Studies of the third comprehensive plan of Tabriz city. [in Persian]
- National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, (2008), Promoting and creating built or natural environments that encourage and support physical activity. : NICE public health guidance, 8. NICE, London, PP:28.
- Naghizadeh, M. (2014). Comparative Comparison of the Concept of Perception and its Process in the Philosophy and Psychology of the Environment and its Application in Urban Design, Pazhoheshhaye Memari e Eslami Journal, 1st time, No. 3, pp: 3-13. [in Persian]
- Porteous, J. D., (1977), Environment and Behavior: Planning and everyday urban life, Reading, Mass: Addison- Wesley.
-Rezayi Khabushan, R. and Nemati Mehr, M. (2015). Measurement of the quality of residential environment in Mehr housing program based on quality of life indicators, Soffeh Journal, 25th time, No. 2, pp: 7- 53. [in Persian]
- Stokols, D., (1992), Establishing and maintaining health environments: toward a social ecology of health promotion. American Psychologist Journal. 47th time, No. 1, 6–22.
- Sasanpur, F.; Mostafavi Saheb, S.; Behboudi Moghadam, H. and Ahmadi, B. (2015). Improving the quality of urban environment with an emphasis on environmental perception of citizens (case study: old and new context of Saghez city), Shahre Paydar Journal, 2nd time, No. 4, pp:33- 50. [in Persian]
- Tebbi Masrour, A. and Rezayi Moayed. S. (2015). Assessment of citizenship Satisfaction of Residential Qualities in Residential Complexes; Case Study: Residential Complexes in Hamadan City, Modiriyat e shahri, No. 40, pp:61- 80. [in Persian]
- Van Poll, R. (1997).The perceived quality of the urban residential environment:A multi attribute evaluation. PhD- thesis, Center for Energy and Environmental Studies (IVEM), University of Groningen (RuG), The Netherlands.
- Zhao, K. (2009), The Relationship between Perceived Residential Environment Quality and Perceived Restoration in Urban Residents ", the 1st International Conference on Information Science and Engineering (ICISE), pp. 4593- 4596.