عنوان مقاله [English]
Housing is one of the most basic human needs. Failure in paying attention to multidimensional demands of human beings reduces the quality of life. Considering the various aspects of human needs, the study of environmental quality for the promotion of life has thus a profound impact on the livability of residential complexes. The livability approach addresses the link between housing and human life and needs by paying attention to the quality of environment in residential complexes.
A residential complex with the livability approach can be life-enhancing for human beings. Therefore, the attention to human behaviors and activities in different functional areas and the respect for environmental quality with such an approach in a stressful, difficult, boring and routine daily life multiplies the necessity of livability in residential spaces. Accordingly, when it comes to the place or architectural space, the term “livability” can be used as if it is supposed to encompass the factors for human life. Given the mutual effect of residential environment on the lives of residents, it is essential to determine the environmental quality which affects livability.
This study aims to enhance the livability of residential complexes in terms of the effects of environmental quality. Three residential complexes – Aseman Tabriz, Shahid Chamran and Imam – which were constructed in different decades, were selected as case studies. This study is an applied research in terms of its objectives and employs a descriptive-analytical methodology. The data is collected through library and field research (observation, interview and questionnaire). The field data is obtained by distributing a questionnaire. The sample size was determined by the Cochran formula to be 300 people. The data is analyzed using the SPSS software. The SWOT matrix is also used to assess and analyze the samples. The components of livability are categorized into material and perceptual components by analyzing the levels of human life from the Islamic point of view. The results indicate that the environmental quality affects the livability of residential complexes in regard to the needs of human life. The environmental quality includes material (physical and environmental factors) and perceptual components (cultural, mental and social factors).
The material components are the basic needs for living in a house and are necessary for human life, while the perceptual components are investigated in relation to meanings and human perception. Finally, it is found that mental factors have a greater impact on the livability of residential complexes. Given the investigations into the case studies (Aseman Tabriz, Shahid Chamran and Imam Residential Complexes) in terms of livability, the results suggest that failure to pay attention to material and perceptual components in residential spaces leads to the deterioration of residential complexes over time.
Given the components of livability, Imam Residential Complex is vulnerable because of its failure in addressing some material and perceptual components. The livability of Chamran Complex is vulnerable due to the elimination of the role of perceptual components. Amongst the three case studies, Aseman Tabriz Complex has the components of livability. The livability of a complex can be observed through the presence within the space.