ارزیابی نقش زیستگاه در جغرافیای جرایم شهری (مطالعه موردی: شهر میاندوآب)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه حقوق جزا و جرم شناسی، واحد مراغه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مراغه، ایران

چکیده

 محیط جرم همیشه از ماهیت ثابت و فضای کالبدی خاص با محدودیت‌های فیزیکی برخوردار است. انسان همواره در حال تولید تنوع محیطی است و از این ‌رو جرائم شهری با کثرت ملاک‌های ارتباطات اجتماعی افزایش می‌یابد. در تقابل با این زیستگاه جرائم، همه تمهیدات لازم برای پیشگیری از تعامل دو عنصر الحاقی و القایی با عنصر محیطی بایستی به کار گرفته شود. روش تحقیق حاضر به لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و به لحاظ نوع و روش، توصیفی _ تحلیلی و به شیوه کتابخانه­ای و میدانی بوده است. جامعه آماری تحقیق نیز 268 نفر از بزهکاران شهر میاندوآب که در کلانتری‌ها و واحدهاى اجرایى ناجا طى بازه زمانی اول فروردین‌ماه تا شهریور سال1395 تحت بازداشت موقت و یا روانه زندان شده‌اند، بوده که به‌ عنوان نمونه، تعداد 122 نفر از این افراد براساس فرمول نمونه‌گیری کوکران انتخاب‌ شده‌اند.  بنابراین به‌ منظور ارزیابی نقش زیستگاه در جغرافیای جرائم شهری میاندوآب، با استفاده از نظریه‌های روان­شناختی، جامعه‌شناسی جنایی و جغرافیای جرائم شهری به تبیین ادبیات نظری موضوع و در تحلیل میدانی نیز براساس اطلاعات دریافتی از جامعه آماری، به تجزیه‌وتحلیل اطلاعات پرداخته ‌شده است. با بررسی الگوی جغرافیایی جرائم شهری با استفاده از مدل تخمین تراکم کرنل، یافته‌های این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که کوی قره ورن، کوی ولی‌آباد، خیابان جانبازان و کوی وکیل کندی در میاندوآب، با میزان بسیار بالای بزهکاری مواجه است. کیف‌قاپی، تخریب اموال عمومی، ولگردی و تکدی گری، نزاع، درگیری خیابانی و زورگیری از مهم‌ترین جرائم ارتکابى این شهر بوده است. در بررسی تأثیر زیستگاه بر انواع بزهکاری مشخص شد که عناصر محیطی بر وقوع جرائمی مانند سرقت و اعتیاد به مواد مخدر، بیشترین تأثیر را داشته­اند. در بررسی ویژگی‌های اماکن وقوع جرم نیز مشخص شد که تراکم خانه‌های قدیمی با قیمت نازل در بروز بزهکاری بیشترین نقش را داشته است. نتایج تحلیل‌ها نشان می‌دهد که عدم طراحى مناسب ساختمان‌ها و وجود کوچه‌های باریک از مهم‌ترین ویژگی‌های کالبدى در بروز بزهکاری بوده‌اند. آزمون آماری همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد که بین زیستگاه و بزهکاری افراد رابطه معنی‌داری وجود دارد. نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه نیز نشان داد که مجموع متغیرهای پیش‌بین «مشخصات کالبدی و اجتماعی کانون‌های جرم خیز، خصوصیات اماکن مناطق، محیط فیزیکی و عناصر اقلیمی»، حدود 32 درصد متغیر ملاک تحقیق بزهکاری را تبیین نمودند که مؤلفه «مشخصات کالبدی کانون‌های جرم خیز»،  بیشترین سهم را در تبیین متغیر ملاک داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Investigation into the Role of Habitat in the Geography of Urban Crimes: A Case Study of Miandoab City

نویسنده [English]

  • Jamal Beigi
Assistant Professor of Criminal Law and Criminology, Maragheh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maragheh, Iran
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