طراحی شهری: از بازبینی فرایند تا تحقق محصول به سوی رویکرد تدریجی فرایند طراحی شهری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکده شهرسازی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد دانشکده شهرسازی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

3 پژوهشگر دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده شهرسازی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

در این مقاله فرایند طراحی شهری به عنوان اصلی‌ترین مولفه‌ی چنته دانش طراحی شهری مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و مناسبت این فرایند با تحقق پروژه‌ها به لحاظ نظری تحلیل شده است. به این منظور فرایند طراحی شهری در بستر نظری رشته طراحی شهری به عنوان یک رشته‌ی آکادمیک مستقل تحلیل شده و مشکلات تحقق‌پذیری پروژه‌ها در قالب رابطه سه گانه تئوری، حرفه و اجرا مورد بحث قرار گرفته است. هدف مقاله دستیابی به روش‌شناسی مناسب جهت مواجهه طراحی شهری با مشکلات مرتبط با تحقق‌پذیری پروژه‌هاست. این روش‌شناسی در چارچوب نظری مقاله ارائه شده است. چارچوب نظری مقاله مبتنی بر تبیین فرایندی است که در جهت افزایش تحقق‌پذیری پروژه‌ها مطرح شده است. فرایند یاد شده تحت عنوان فرایند تدریجی طراحی شهری مرحله اجرا را نیز به مراحل متداول فرایند، مطالعه، تحلیل و اجرا، می‌افزاید و آنها را در یک مناسبت غیر خطی و غیر چرخه‌ای به صورت نامنظم و وابسته به مراحل اجرا در نظر می‌گیرد. این فرایند پیشنهادی در قالب روش‌شناسی پژوهشی اقدام‌پژوهی در یک پروژه طراحی شهری مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. پروژه طراحی اراضی کن جنوبی شهر تهران مبتنی بر این روش‌شناسی در چارچوب کارهای عملی واقعی عالم حرفه مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. در بررسی این نمونه‌ی موردی مراتب افزایش تحقق‌پذیری پروژه از طریق به کار گرفتن روش تدریجی شرح داده شده است. همچنین به عنوان شاهد عدم کامیابی فرایند کلاسیک طراحی شهری اسناد تحقق یک نمونه موردی دیگر، طرح جامع ویژه‌ی اراضی عباس‌آباد، با روش تحلیل محتوا آنالیز شده است. در نهایت در نتیجه بحث تعمیم‌پذیری فرایند تدریجی طراحی شهری به عنوان یک مکانیزم جایگزین یا تکمیل‌کننده فرایندهای روتین و متداول طراحی شهری مطرح گردیده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Urban design: from Reviewing the Process to realization of product Towards an Incremental Process of Urban Design

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farshad Nourian 1
  • Behnaz Aminzadeh 2
  • Mazyar Abaee 3
1 Associated Prof. of Urban Planning, School of Urban Planning, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran
2 Prof. of Urban Design, School of Urban Planning, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran
3 PhD. Candidate of Urban Planning, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

As it is shown in many recent research, developing evaluation of urban design projects from the design, economic, and social point of views, such projects have failed to accomplish their stated goals. Theoretically, this appears to be the result of a theory-practice dichotomy in urban Knowledge. In this paper urban design process, the main element of urban design knowledge base is reviewed and its relation to realization of project is analyzed theoretically There has been, however, a dip in comprehensive research work about the “urban design process” since the 1990s.Although there are a number of different parameters which affect the implementation of designed urban projects, it can be said that the urban design process itself may play a major role in the end product. Hence, the question is that what could be the relation between the urban design process and on-the-ground project realization? In this regard urban design process is reviewed in theoretical context of urban design discipline and challenges of realization of projects are seen in trilogy of theory, practice and implementation. A complementary question is that whether we can manipulate the urban design process in such that the stated “design goals” can be achieved and the projects can be realized as intended To answer these questions, we first present a review of the literature on urban design process and, next, we discuss the results of our examination of a number of implemented urban design projects - using interpretative approach - in order to find clues about the manner to handle the urban design process and to solve the theory-practice dichotomy of urban design itself. This review is led to a theoretical framework which within a process is defined to increase realization of projects. The suggested process, incremental process of urban design, joined the implementation phase in classical phases of urban design process, study, analysis and design. The incremental process sees the phases neither linear nor spiral but as a coal which is depended on implementation. The suggested process, incremental process of urban design, joined the implementation phase in classical phases of urban design process, study, analysis and design. The incremental process sees the phases neither linear nor spiral but as a coal which is depended on implementation. Methodologically, the research deals with many unknown subjects and undefined parameters. Thus, it may not be possible to develop a certain theoretical framework with a clear list of measurable criteria which can meet the research goals through a classified research method. In this paper, methods which deal with are used. Our literature review results in a framework which points to a part of a relationship between the subject matters. This framework, however, is not exhaustive because our research does not rely on quantitative measurements and focuses on experiencing the subject. Such an experience clarifies the parameters and their relations through direct contact with research domain. Therefore, the research is bounded by qualitative research. Due to uncertainties of subjects, a theoretical interpretation of literature is done based on qualitative research methods to make a framework for experimental approach to the subject. Action research method has led us to calibration of the framework, making it more realistic. Methodologically this paper uses action research in a project in designing south Kan area in Tehran to describe the process of increasing realization of project based on incremental process. Also in this paper as testator documents of another project, Abbas Abad area master plan, is analyzed based on content analysis to show weakness of classic design process to reach realization of projects. Here, the master plan for Abbas Abad region in Tehran is our case. We use this project as the subject of our content analysis. This project is studied through its documents, i.e. reports, administrative letters and proceedings. Proceedings are based on meetings of cultural committee and technical committee of Abbas Abad. Next, another project – i.e. “designing south Kan area” - is used as a case study which is actually implemented on the ground. Generalization of incremental process can be explained theoretically but experimental proof of it needs more case studies and several and repeated experimental application of process. Experimental application of the method can calibrate the framework to a more realistic one. The result of theoretical explanation is the general format of the process which its several applications as a priory model can make it change though time to become a more complete model, other models or derivations of the model.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban design
  • Urban Design Process
  • Incremental Urban Design Process
  • Action Research