نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکده شهرسازی ،پردیس هنرهای زیبا دانشگاه تهران،ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد برنامه ریزی شهری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

3 کارشناسی ارشدبرنامه ریزی شهری،دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی،دانشگاه هنرتهران

چکیده

توجه به شادی و ابعاد راهبردی آن، نقش اساسی در مطلوبیت کیفیت محیطی محلات شهری دارد که امروزه عدم توجه به آن، یکی از چالش‌های پیشِ رو شهرها به ویژه کلانشهرهایی مانند مشهد به عنوان بستر زیست انسان در راه رسیدن به زندگی پایدار شهری است. طی دهه‌های اخیر  با توسعه‌های جدید و قدیم شکل گرفته در سطح کلانشهر مشهد، محلاتی ایجاد شده‌اند که از سطح کیفی مطلوبی برخوردار نبوده و با مشکلات و معضلات فراوانی مانند فقدان عرصه­های همگانی، ناامنی، نبود زیبایی­های بصری، نبود امکانات محلی، تعلق پایین، آلودگی­های محیطی، فقدان بسترهای مناسب روابط همسایگی و... روبه­رو بوده که به واقع از میزان شادی و نشاط به عنوان حلقه مفقوده و فراموش شده زندگی شهروندان مشهدی، کاسته و ضرورت طراحی محیطی مناسب و شاد را افزایش داده است. از جمله این محلات در توسعه جدید، محله فارغ­التحصیلان و در توسعه قدیم، محله طبرسی است. از این روهدف مطالعه حاضر، ارزیابی ابعاد و شاخص­های شادی در دو بافت قدیم و جدید شهر مشهد با خصیصه­های متفاوت است تا ضمن شناسایی ابعاد و شاخص­های شهر شاد به حل مشکلات محلات شهری به روشی اصولی و کارآمد برای حرکت به سوی پایداری بیشتر جوامع محلی دست یافت. مطالعه حاضر از نظر نتایج، کاربردی_توسعه­ای، از نظر فرآیند اجرا به صورت کمی و از نظر هدف توصیفی_تحلیلی با استناد به مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای است و از میان ساکنان محلات طبرسی و فارغ­التحصیلان، 320 نفر به ‌صورت تصادفی برای تکمیل پرسشنامه‌ها انتخاب شده‌اند. تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات با استفاده از آزمون‌های آماری شامل فریدمن، من_ویتنی، اسپیرمن، کای اسکوئر و ضریب کرامر در نرم­افزار SPSS انجام شده است. براساس نتایج به دست آمده از تحلیل، تنها بعد کالبدی در محله فارغ­التحصیلان (3.22) در بین ابعاد شادی شرایط نسبتاً مطلوبی دارد و در سایر ابعاد، هر دو محله شرایط نامطلوبی دارند. همچنین اختلاف معنی­داری میان شاخص­های شادی در محلات قدیم و جدید وجود دارد. از دیگر یافته­هایتحقیق اینست که میانگین رتبه شادی در محله فارغ­التحصیلان (167.90) بیشتر از محله طبرسی (135.45) است که نشان از شادتر بودن ساکنان محله جدید در مقایسه با محله قدیم دارد. اما تفاوت این دو از نظر شادی زیاد و محسوس نیست. شادی با متغیرهای درآمد، مالکیت مسکونی، قومیت، اشتغال، وضعیت تأهل و تعداد اعضای خانوار رابطه مثبت و با سن رابطه منفی و معنی­داری دارد. در نهایت، شاخص­های امنیت شغلی در هر دو محله از بعد اقتصادی، سطح ایمنی و کیفیت نورپردازی در محله قدیم و دسترسی به فضای سبز، کیفیت فضای آبی در محله جدید از بعد کالبدی، سطح امنیت در محله قدیم و شرکت در جشن­های بومی و مشارکت در حل مشکلات در محله جدید از بعد اجتماعی، دارای بیشترین میزان همبستگی با شادی و نشاط هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Dimensions and Indicators of the Happy City in Mashhad’s Neighborhoods (Case Studies: Tabarsee Fareq Altahsilan Neighborhoods)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farshad Noorian 1
  • reza ghazi 2
  • seyed sajad abdullahpur 3

1 Associate Professor,University of Tehran,Tehran,Iran

2 Master of Urban Planning,College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran

3 Master of Urban Planning,Faculty of Urban Planning and Architecture,University of Art

چکیده [English]

Concern for happiness and its strategic dimensions plays a key role in provision of desirable environment quality in urban neighborhoods, ignorance of which is an issue with which cities, metropolises such as Mashhad, Iran in particular, are faced as a requirement for man to achieve sustainable urban life. In recent decades, new and old developments have been made in Mashhad, and neighborhoods have been created that do not meet the desired level of quality, and suffer many problems such as lack of public areas, insecurity, lack of visual beauty, lack of local facilities, poor sense of belonging, environmental pollution, and inappropriate conditions for neighborhood relations. This has actually lowered the level of happiness and vitality as a missing, neglected factor in the citizens’ lives, highlighting the need for proper, happy environmental design. Among the newly-developed neighborhoods is the Fareghottahsilan neighborhood, and Tabarsi is one that has been developed long ago. The purpose of this study was to assess the dimensions and indicators of happiness in old and new areas of Mashhad with different characteristics, to identify the dimensions and indicators of a happy city to solve the problems in urban neighborhoods fundamentally and efficiently towards achievement of greater sustainability in local communities. The present applied-developmental, quantitative, descriptive-analytical research was based on library studies. 320 citizens were randomly selected from among the residents of the Tabarsi and Fareghottahsilan neighborhoods to fill out the questionnaires. Data analysis was made in SPSS using statistical tests including Friedman, Mann-Whitney, Spearman, Chi-square and Cramér’s coefficient. According to the results of the analysis, it was only the physical dimension among those of happiness that exhibited relatively favorable conditions only in the Fareghottahsilan neighborhood (3.22), and both neighborhoods had unfavorable conditions in the other dimensions. Moreover, a significant difference was found between the indicators of happiness in the old and new neighborhoods. Another finding was that the average rate of happiness in the Fareghottahsilan neighborhood (167.90) was higher than that in Tabarsi (135.45), which demonstrated that the residents of the new neighborhood were happier than those of the old neighborhood, but the difference between the two in terms of happiness was not big. Happiness was positively related to income, residence ownership, ethnicity, employment, marital status, and family size, and it was negatively related to age. Finally, the greatest correlations with happiness and vitality were observed for job security in both neighborhoods from an economic perspective, level of safety and quality of lighting in the old neighborhood and access to green spaces and quality of water spaces in the new neighborhood from a physical perspective, level of security in the old neighborhood and participation in local celebrations and participation in solving the problems in the new neighborhood from a social perspective.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • happiness
  • dimensions and indicators of a happy city
  • old and new areas
  • Tabarsi and Fareghottahsilan neighborhoods in Mashhad

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