نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه معماری/ دانشکده فنی و مهندسی/ دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی/ اردبیل/ ایران

2 استادیار، دانشکده معماری، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، گروه آموزشی مهندسی معماری، اردبیل، ایران.

3 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

حس تعلق به مکان با میزان رضایت و تداوم حضور افراد در یک محله ارتباط مستقیم دارد. عدم شناخت کافی برنامه­ریزان و طراحان از ابعاد مؤثر بر حس تعلق و تفاوت و شباهت­های بین عوامل مؤثر در محلات مختلف شهری منجر به کاهش همبستگی، مشارکت اجتماعی و نیز کاهش انگیزه ساکنان برای ادامه سکونت می­شود. هدف این مقاله، مقایسه عوامل مؤثر بر حس تعلق ساکنان در محلات جدید و قدیمی اردبیل است که می­تواند منجر به ارتقای سطح آگاهی از ریشه رفتارهای سکونتی مردم شود. برای دستیابی به این هدف، با استفاده از روش تحلیلی_توصیفی، مرور ادبیات و انجام مصاحبه، به تهیه پرسشنامه محقق ساخت با 57 سئوال اقدام شد. مخاطبان به تعداد 200 نفر با استفاده از فرمول کوکران و از بین ساکنان با سن بیشتر از ١٨ سال در محله­های مسکونی شهر اردبیل، به روش خوشه­ای و تصادفی انتخاب شدند. 100 پرسشنامه در محلات قدیمی و 100 پرسشنامه نیز در محلات جدید اردبیل پخش و تکمیل شد. در مرحله بعد، تحلیل آماری نتایج حاصل از پرسشنامه­ها شامل آزمون تی و همبستگی پیرسون با استفاده از نرم­افزار 21 SPSS انجام شد. براساس نتایج حاصل، اگرچه احساس تعلق به مکان در محلات قدیمی بیشتر از محلات جدید است، اما عوامل مؤثر بر حس تعلق به مکان در محلات قدیمی، ماهیت متفاوتی در مقایسه با محلات جدید دارد. در محلات قدیمی علاوه بر پیوندهای تاریخی و خانوادگی در افراد، عوامل اجتماعی نسبت به عوامل کالبدی، عامل قوی­تر و اثرگذارتری بر سطح رضایت­مندی و حس تعلق در ساکنان محله است. با این حال در محلات جدید نیز به دلیل پررنگ­ بودن برخی از فاکتورهای بعد کالبدی مانند وجود عناصر طبیعی، فضاهای باز، امکانات تفریحی و موارد مشابه، شاهد سطح مطلوب رضایت­مندی ساکنان بودیم. در نتیجه افراد در محلات قدیمی و جدید ابعادی از حس تعلق را به دست می­آورند و ابعادی را از دست می­دهند که در حالت ایده­آل به منظور تجمیع حداکثری عوامل مؤثر بر حس تعلق به مکان در یک محله، گام نخست شناسایی و قیاس عوامل بود که در این مقاله بدان پرداخته شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparing the Effective Factors on the Sense of Place in Old and New neighborhoods in Ardabil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Tohid Hatami Khanghahi 1
  • Vahid Vaziri 2
  • Bahareh Salmanian 3
  • Negin Tajaddini 3

1 Department of Architectural Engineering/ University of Mohaghegh Ardabili/ Ardabil/ Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran.

3 Master of Architecture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

چکیده [English]

Objectives. The sense of place is directly related to people’s levels of satisfaction with and continued presence in a neighborhood. Insufficient understanding of the factors effective on the sense and differences and similarities between the effective factors reduces the residents’ unity, social participation, and motivation to continue residence in different urban areas. The purpose of this paper was to compare the factors effective on the residents’ sense of place in the new and old neighborhoods of the city of Ardabil, Iran.
Methodology. For the above purpose, the descriptive-analytical research method was used. First, a researcher-made questionnaire with 57 items was made based on a review of the literature and field studies and interviews with neighborhood residents and analyses of their statements. The research population consisted of 200 people, selected by the cluster sampling method using the Cochran formula from among inhabitants in the residential areas of Ardabil. 100 questionnaires were distributed and filled out in the old neighborhoods, and 100 in the new ones. In the next step, a statistical analysis was made of the obtained results using SPSS 21, including the t-test and Pearson’s correlation test.
Findings. In the old neighborhoods, the residents have usually lived there their whole lives or for a long time. Therefore, they are deeply acquainted and connected with each other. As a result of these historical and family links, they have greater senses of belonging and ownership with respect to their neighborhoods and greater incentives to influence them, participate in different activities including public ones, increase compatibility with the place and provide social control and monitoring. Other factors that increase the sense of place in the old neighborhoods include the activity of the neighborhood center as a turning point, the cultural and religious commonalities, and the centrality of the mosque, enabling individuals to communicate with each other, which are less serious in the new neighborhoods. On the other hand a lack of certain elements and factors was felt in the old neighborhoods, or a need for new places to meet today’s requirements, such as urban green spaces and parks and places for activity and interaction of different age groups. In the new neighborhoods, desirable levels of resident satisfaction were observed as compared to those in the old neighborhoods due to the great effectiveness of certain physical factors such as presence of natural elements, open spaces, and recreational facilities.
 
Conclusions. Based on the results, the sense of belonging to place is stronger in the old neighborhoods than in the new ones, while the factors effective on the sense are of different natures in the two types of neighborhood. In other words, certain factors are more important in the old neighborhoods, causing the residents’ satisfaction, whereas other factors matter more in the new neighborhoods. People’s different residential motivations lead to their choice of old or new neighborhoods. As a result, people in old and new neighborhoods gain advantage in certain factors effective on the sense of place, and lose advantage in others. It was concluded from this research that the first step for inclusion of the different factors effective on the sense of place in a neighborhood is ideally to identify and compare them.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sense of place
  • Old neighborhoods
  • New neighborhoods
  • Ardabil

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