نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموختۀ کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشگاه کاشان.

2 استادیار دانشکدۀ معماری و هنر، دانشگاه کاشان

چکیده

در سده اخیر و در شهرهای تاریخی، طرح‌های توسعه شهری ازجمله طرح‌های جامع و برنامه‌های ساخت خیابان مسبب مداخلات وسیع و مشکلاتی از جمله از بین رفتن یکپارچگی بافت شهری بوده‌اند. این مداخلات در محلات تاریخی نمود بیشتری پیدا کرده‏است؛ زیرا همواره یکی از مهم‌ترین ویژگی‏های این محدوده‌ها، ساختار یکپارچه و انسجام اجزای آن به محوریت مرکز محله بوده‏ و مداخلات شهری بدون شناخت ساختارهای فضایی به چند پاره شدن بافت و از بین رفتن انسجام درونی آن منجر شده‏است. در این مقاله به طور خاص پیامدهای ساخت دو خیابان‌ فاضل نراقی و علوی بر روی ساختار فضایی محله سلطان میراحمد کاشان و مرکز آن مطالعه می‌شود. براین اساس این مقاله در پی پاسخ دادن به این پرسش‌هاست که ساخت دو خیابان بیان شده چه پیامدهایی در ارتباط با ساختار فضایی محله داشته‌ و چه آسیب‌هایی را به آن وارد کرده‌ است. برای پاسخ دادن به این پرسش‌ها، محدوده مورد نظر در سه مقطع زمانی مختلف و با توجه به تغییرات ایجاد شده، مطالعه و وضعیت آن طی سه دوره یادشده مقایسه شده‏است. روش تحقیق به کار گرفته شده در این مقاله توصیفی_تاریخی است و بر مطالعه ساختار فضایی شهر استوار شده و درعین حال یافته‌های مبتنی بر تکنیک اسپیس سینتکس با وضعیت فضای شهری و دسترسی‌ها در سه دوره یادشده مقایسه  شده تا تصویر روشنی از تغییرات را آشکار کند. بنابراین برای دستیابی به تحلیلی دقیق از تغییرات رخ داده شده، مدل محوری شهر به کمک روش اسپیس سینتکس تحلیل شده و براین اساس داده‏ها در نرم­افزارdepth Map  مورد واکاوی قرار‏ گرفته‏اند.  تحلیل‏های صورت گرفته با تکیه بر ارزیابی دو متغیر انسجام و گزیده نشان می‌دهد که توسعه‏های شهری و ایجاد خیابان‏های جدید در درون و یا نزدیک محله سلطان میراحمد نتایج متفاوتی در پی داشته ‏است. به نحوی که برخی از این خیابان‏ها توان بالقوه تبدیل شدن به هسته جدید در ساختار محله را پیدا کرده‌اند. از سوی دیگر در اثر تغییرات رخ داده شده، بخش‌های درونی محله و ازجمله مرکز تاریخی آن جایگاه خود را در ساختار فضایی محله، محدوده شهری پیرامون و کل شهر از دست داده و به مرکزی فرعی تبدیل شده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying the Effect of Urban Development Plans on Spatial Configuration of Sultan Mir Ahmad Neighborhood in Kashan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Jamal Seyyed Hashemi 1
  • Hamidreza Jayhani 2

1 M.A. of Architecture, School of Architecture and Art, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, School of Architecture and Art, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

چکیده [English]

In the second half of the past century, urban development programs, including master and comprehensive plans, have led to extensive intervention in ancient cities, while the construction of streets had already led to substantial changes therein. An examination of the interventions indicates their inefficiency in solving urban problems. At the same time, these interventions have led to new issues, including a lack of integrity in the historic urban areas and their fabrics. In this article, the impact of the new streets in the Sultan Mir Ahmad neighborhood in the city of Kashan, Iran was investigated. The process of urban changes in Kashan was organic until the early 20th century, limited to areas around the heart of the city, the historic bazaar, and the governmentcitadel. Subsequently, the pattern of urban development changed, and construction of straight, long streets was prioritized in line with the growing trend of modernization and the expansion of automobile use. The two streets of Fazel Naraqi and Alavi have been constructed with an interval of about two decades near the Sultan Mir Ahmad neighborhood. One is located to the north of the neighborhood, and the other separates a part of the area from its larger part. This article sought to study how the two streets influence the spatial structure of the Sultan Mir Ahmad neighborhood. For a thorough analysis of the changes that have occurred, the space syntax method was used. Therefore, axial maps of Kashan were provided for three periods: the 1920s, 1960s, and 2010s. Then, the area under investigation was analyzed using integration, depth, and choice as indicators. The results demonstrated an enhancement in global integration as a result of the construction of the Fazel Naraqi and Alavi streets. It should be noted, however, that the impacts of the two streets are different. Alavi Street has had a greater influence due to its proximity to the center of the neighborhood and intersection with its main paths. Subsequently, it was found through an investigation of the local integration and choice indicators that the center of the region had lost its original position, and that Alavi Street had come to be known as the most crowded, most accessible route in the region as the new center of the urban area, with the old heart of the neighborhood turned into a sub-center. In fact, two events have occurred along with the emergence of the development plans and construction of straight streets at the heart of the fabric. Firstly, the construction of streets nearthe neighborhood intersecting its major paths has led to an increase in accessibility and integrity and a decrease in the depth of the urban area. At the same time, however, part of the neighborhood that is adjacent to new communication routes has experienced increased permeability and accessibility. This has caused the inner parts of the neighborhood, including the historic center, to lose their positions in the urban spatial structure and turn into sub-centers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Spatial Configuration
  • Space Syntax
  • Historic Urban Area
  • Kashan
  • Sultan Mir Ahmad Neighborhood

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