نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دوره دکترای تخصصی، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران

3 استاد، گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری ، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

با جدی­تر شدن موضوع تاب­آوری شهری از سال 2005 میلادی (اجلاس هیوگو)، پژوهش در زمینه توانمندسازی مدیریت شهرها برای عملکرد مطلوب­تر در زمان بروز حادثه، به طور ویژه مورد توجه قرار گرفت. این مسئله در شهرهایی که در آنها خطر زمین لرزه وجود دارد (مانند شهر قزوین) اهمیت دو چندانی پیدا کرده است. از آنجا که ساختار ستاد مدیریت بحران در شهر قزوین مشابه شهرهایی است که در سال­های اخیر عملکرد ناموفقی در برخورد با زلزله داشته­اند (مانند ورزقان، قصر شیرین و غیره)،  مسئله اصلی (با توجه به خطر بالقوه زلزله در شهر قزوین) این است که ساختار این ستاد باید به چه صورت باشد تا بتواند عملکرد مطلوب­تری نسبت به زمین لرزه داشته باشد. مقاله حاضر از نظر نوع روش توصیفی_تحلیلی است که ساختار ستاد مدیریت بحران شهر قزوین را مورد ارزیابی قرار می­دهد. لازم به توضیح است که شهر قزوین به دلیل نزدیکی به گسل­های فشاری، همواره در معرض خطر زمین لرزه با شدت بسیار بالا قرار دارد. در بخش مبانی نظری با مطالعه اسناد مختلف، متغیرها و شاخص­های مطرح در تاب­آوری نهادی شناسایی گردیدند. سپس به تشریح ساختار ستاد مدیریت بحران شهر قزوین و الگوهای پیشنهادی در اسناد سازمان ملل متحد و سایر کشورهای موفق در برخورد با حوادث (همچون ژاپن و ایالات متحده امریکا) پرداخته شد. در بخش تحلیل یافته­ها، ابتدا با ارزیابی متغیرها و شاخص­ها به روش CVR (نسبت روایی محتوایی) موارد ضروری با توجه به شرایط شهر قزوین شناسایی گردیدند. در این بخش از 30 کارشناس شهرسازی نظرسنجی به عمل آمد که در مجموع نُه متغیر و نُه شاخص با توجه به شرایط قزوین برای دستیابی به تاب­آوری نهادی برگزیده شدند. سپس پرسشنامه­ای در قالب طیف لیکرت تنظیم گردید که سئوالات این پرسشنامه براساس وظایفی است که قانون برای کارگروه­های مختلف این ستاد مشخص کرده است. سئوالات به تفکیک کارگروه­های مختلف دسته­بندی شده و در هر سئوال متغیر و شاخص مورد هدف تعیین گردیده­ است. پس از نظرسنجی از 110 کارشناس حوزه شهرسازی، داده­ها با کمک نرم­افزار spss تحلیل شدند. با استفاده از آزمون T.Student وضعیت موجود متغیرها در شاخص­های مختلف برای این ستاد در شهر قزوین مورد سنجش قرار گرفت. برآیند نتایج نشان دهنده عدم توجه به متغیرهای نُه­گانه اثرگذار بود. همچنین مقایسه ساختار ستاد مدیریت بحران شهر قزوین با الگوهای مطرح در دنیا، نشان دهنده آن بود که بر خلاف الگوهای موفق که از چهار بخش اصلی تشکیل شده بودند، ساختار این ستاد در شهر قزوین تنها از دو بخش نیروهای عملیاتی و اداری تشکیل شده است، که البته این دو بخش نیز نیازمند اصلاح سازمانی می باشند. در نتیجه ستاد مورد نظر برای تحقق تاب­آوری نهادی لازم است حول سه محور اقدام نماید. نخست، اصلاح ساختار ستاد برای رفع نواقص موجود، دوم، تغییر نگرش در نحوه مدیریت امور از حکومت به حکمروایی و سوم، مجهز شدن به فناوری­های نوین سخت­افزاری و نرم­افزاری در راستای آمادگی و پیشگیری. اقدامات لازم حول سه محور فوق باید به صورت همزمان پیگیری شود تا اثربخشی لازم را نشان دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Institutional resilience structure for transition from crisis management to urban management resilience against earthquake (Case Study: Qazvin City)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Daryoush Ardalan 1
  • zohreh davoudpour 2
  • Keramatollah Ziari 3

1 PhD. Candidate, Department of Urban Planning, Architecture and Urban Planning faculty, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.

2 Associate Prof, Department of Urban Planning, Architecture and Urban Planning faculty, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

3 Professor of Geography and Urban planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

The high rates of financial and human loss in natural disasters (particularly in recent decades) have led various countries and organizations to seek effective theories in that regard. Since 2005 (the Hugo Summit), the issue of resilience has been pursued seriously, addressing the idea of empowering cities to perform better in the event of an accident. Iran is a country where a large number of natural disasters occur, and the city of Qazvin is at constant risk of severe earthquakes, as indicated by research,  due to the crossing of dangerous pressure faults in its northern part. In Iran, particularly in Qazvin, urban management has delegated responsibility for addressing disasters to a "crisis management headquarters." Given that the structure of the headquarters in Qazvin is similar to those of similar entities in cities with unsuccessful backgrounds of performance in addressing earthquakes in recent years, the main issue in this regard is how to change the structure of the headquarters so that it can perform more favorably upon earthquakes.
This descriptive-analytical research considered the proposed headquarters structures and models as described in the UN documentations and those of countries having addressed such events successfully. Moreover, the variables and indicators examined in investigation of institutional resilience were identified. Qazvin’s crisis management headquarters was regarded as a dependent variable influenced by a number of independent variables, and its success depended on the conditions of those variables.
In the analysis of the findings, the required factors were first identified according to the conditions of Qazvin through assessment of the variables and indicators using CVR (the content validity ratio). A survey was conducted of 30 urban planning experts, in which a total of 9 variables and 9 indicators were selected to obtain institutional resilience.
A questionnaire was then prepared in the format of the Likert scale, where the questions were based on the tasks specified by the law for the different working groups at the headquarters and categorized on that basis, with the variable and the target index for each question specified. After a survey of 110 urban planning experts, the data were analyzed using SPSS. Using a Student’s t-test, the variables were assessed with different indicators for the headquarters under investigation. The results indicated a lack of concern for the 9 effective variables. Furthermore, a comparison of the structure of the headquarters to the models in use around the world demonstrated that it consisted of only two parts, including operating and administrative forces, unlike the successful models, which are composed of four main parts. It was also found that the above two departments of course need organizational reform. Thus, the headquarters needed to consider three measures to achieve institutional resilience. Firstly, the structure needed to be reformed to address the existing drawbacks. Secondly, the attitudes toward management needed to be changed from government to governance. Thirdly, equipment with new hardware and software technologies was needed for preparedness and prevention. The required measures in the above three areas should be taken simultaneously to exhibit the necessary effectiveness.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crisis Management
  • Institutional Resilience
  • Qazvin
  • Earthquake

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