نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی روستایی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا وبرنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

3 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی.

چکیده

معلولیت به ‌منزله پدیده‌ای زیستی و اجتماعی، واقعیتی است که تمام جوامع، صرف ‌نظر از میزان توسعه ‌یافتگی، اعم از کشورهای صنعتی و غیرصنعتی با آن مواجه هستند. فضاهای عمومی شهری نقش مهمی در برنامه‌های توسعه مناطق شهری دارند و در فرآیند برنامه‌ریزی شهری، هنر برنامه‌ریزی این است که بتواند تعامل و تعادلی بین گروه‌های ذی‌نفع ایجاد کند. با توجه به اهمیت موضوع مناسب‌سازی فضاهای شهری برای معلولان (جسمی_حرکتی و نابینایان) از یک‌سو و نیز تعداد قابل‌ توجه شهروندان کم‌توان جسمی و حرکتی در شهر اردبیل از سوی دیگر، پژوهش حاضر با هدف واکاوی و بررسی میزان رضایت‌مندی معلولان و ارزیابی وضع موجود مناسب‌سازی بخش مرکزی شهر اردبیل با رویکردی نظام‌مند، در جهت پاسخ‌دهی به نیاز این قشر از شهروندان است. پژوهش حاضر از لحاظ هدف کاربردی و از لحاظ روش توصیفی_تحلیلی است. داده‌های مورد نیاز از طریق روش‌های میدانی گردآوری‌ شده‌اند و با استفاده از نرم‌افزارspss و آزمون‌های،T تک ‌نمونه‌ای،t  مستقل و آزمون تحلیل ‌واریانس یک ‌طرفه مورد تجزیه ‌و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج به‌ دست‌ آمده از پژوهش(آزمونT) نشان می‌دهد که میزان رضایت­مندی معلولان از شاخص‌های مناسب‌سازی کمتر از حد متوسط(3) است. نتایج حاصل از آزمون تحلیل واریانس یک ‌طرفه نشان می‌دهد که سطح معنی‌داری متغیرهای شغل، سن و نوع معلولیت کمتر از 05/.، (000/.) بوده و به لحاظ آماری رابطه معنی­داری در سطح 95درصد وجود دارد که نشان‌دهنده تأثیر متغیرهای مورد بررسی بر میزان رضایت­مندی از شاخص‌های مناسب‌سازی است. همچنین آزمون  tمستقل گویای اینست که در متغیر جنسیت بین میانگین نظری دو گروه مردان و زنان در خصوص ارزیابی رضایت­مندی معلولان از مناسب‌سازی با توجه به این که سطح معنی‌داری (000/.) کمتر از 05/. است، رابطه معنی­داری بین نظرات دو گروه زن و مرد وجود دارد. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از مطالعه حاکی از آن است که  با توجه به اقدامات صورت گرفته به منظور مناسب‌سازی بخش مرکزی شهر اردبیل، شرایط کالبدی، اجتماعی_اقتصادی، وضعیت مبلمان شهری و مدیریت کنونی قادر به رفع نیازهای معلولان به شکل شایسته نیست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the adaptation of urban spaces for persons with disabilities in Ardabil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Arastoo Yari hesar 1
  • samira saeidi zarangi 2
  • zhila Farzane sadat zaranji 2
  • Hadi eskandarieynadin 3

1 Associate Professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardebil, Iran

2 Ph. D. Student, Geography and Urban Planning, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardebil, Iran

3 4- PH.D.student of urban planning & Geography, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardebil, Iran

چکیده [English]

Individuals’ characteristics and those of age, sex, and social groups should help provide a safe, healthy, sustainable, and attractive environment that can properly respond to the different needs of all groups in the community. The population of the disabled, including people with physical and mobility disabilities, is among those who are deprived of ordinary lives, and the social planning system has led them to physical and social seclusion. All around the world, people with physical and mobility disabilities constitute a significant part of the population who, like other people, should be able to move around the city to satisfy their needs, strive, and not be deprived of their right to live a social life.
It is a necessity for the development of the society to adapt urban spaces in order to provide all individuals and segments of the society with equal opportunities to move around the city and access all urban spaces. According to Article 5 of the Charter of Civil Rights of the Iranian Government, all the disabled and the elderly hold the right to benefit from medical and rehabilitation facilities for recovery or empowerment to be able to live independently and participate in different aspects of life.
The research population included 4430 disabled people (physically disabled, blind, or partially sighted) in the city of Ardabil, Iran. Sample size was estimated to be 354 using Cochran’s formula, and a questionnaire was distributed among as many disabled participants and filled out. Interview methods were used for the blind and visually impaired who were not able to fill out the questionnaire. The sampling method employed in the study was simple random sampling, and data analysis was performed in SPSS using one-sample t-test and analysis of variance.
As members of the society, the disabled have rights and entitlements that must be taken into account. One such issue concerns the design and adaptation of urban spaces for this group. If a disabled citizen is unable to access the places he needs to visit due to inappropriate urban spaces, he will be faced with many problems and barriers. The results of this study demonstrated that the physical zone of ​​Ardabil, sidewalks, and construction equipment could not be used by the disabled. Urban administrators and officials have tried to adapt urban spaces by observing relevant principles in the central part of the city.
On average, the status of the indicators was better in the group with physical and mobility impairment than in the blind. For example, the physical and socio-economic indicators exhibited higher averages in the group with physical and mobility impairment than in the blind. Although there were employment restrictions in both groups, they were more common among the blind and visually impaired. Furthermore, higher transportation costs were imposed on the blind and visually impaired than on those with physical and mobility disabilities. Despite the measures taken to adapt the environment for the active presence of the physically disabled and the blind, it is still impossible in the current socio-economic and physical conditions to adequately meet the needs of the disabled. Moreover, the urban management authorities in Ardabil have not formulated a clear  plan for adaptation of urban spaces, and have therefore failed to exhibit acceptable performance in the field.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Adaptation
  • Urban Space
  • Disabled
  • Physically Disabled
  • Ardabil

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