تحلیلی بر ارتباط بین کیفیت کالبدی محیط‌های شهری و استرس درک شده شهروندان، (مطالعه موردی: کلانشهر اصفهان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشکده علوم جغرافیایی و برنامه ریزی، دانشگاه اصفهان

2 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشکده علوم چغرافیایی و برنامه ریزی، دانشگاه اصفهان

3 استاد روانشناسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

رشد شهرنشینی با افزایش اختلالات‌روانی همراه است. یکی از مهم‌ترین اختلالات‌روانی، استرس درک‌شده توسط شهروندان است. استرس سابقه‌ای طولانی در علوم پزشکی دارد. زیرا با بیماری‌های مختلف همچون دیابت، سرطان، بیماری‌های قلبی و عروقی و همچنین با مسائل روانشناختی در ارتباط است. این پژوهش در راستای پاسخ به این سوال انجام شد که در محله‌های شهری، چه ابعادی از کیفیت کالبدی بر استرس تأثیر بیشتری دارد. برای پاسخ به این سؤال، محله مفت‌آباد به‌عنوان یک محله با کیفیت نامطلوب و محله مرداویج به‌عنوان یک محله با کیفیت مطلوب در شهر اصفهان انتخاب شدند. برای گردآوری اطلاعات از پرسشنامه کیفیت محیطی محقق ساخته و همچنین پرسشنامه استاندارد استرس درک‌شده کوهن و همکاران (1983) استفاده شد. تعداد 434 نفر در تکمیل پرسشنامه‌ها همکاری کردند. تحلیل اطلاعات نیز با استفاده از ضریب همبستگی معمولی و جزئی و رگرسیون خطی انجام شد. یافته ها در رابطه با متغیر وابسته پژوهش نشان داد که میزان استرس ادراک شده توسط ساکنان محله مفت‌آباد بیشتر از محله مرداویج بود. نمره میانگین استرس درک شده در محله مفت‌آباد برابر با 07/2 و در محله مرداویج برابر با 04/1 برآورد شد. مدل سازی با استفاده از رگرسیون خطی نشان داد که متغیرهای زیبایی و نظم بصری، جذابیت عملکردی و آسایش محیطی به ترتیب بیشترین تأثیرگذاری را بر استرس درک شده داشتند. براساس مدل‌های پیشنهادی، کیفیت کالبدی محیط‌ در محله مفت‌آباد 67 درصد و در محله مرداویج 46 درصد از تغییرات استرس درک شده را پیش بینی کردند. نتایج پژوهش حاضر در توافق با سایر پژوهش ها نشان داد، افرادی که در محیط های شهری با کیفیت پایین زندگی می‌کنند بیشتر از سایر افراد در معرض استرس هستند. از این رو رابطه میان برنامه‌ریزان شهری و روانشناسان باید تقویت شود تا راهکارها و سیاست‌هایی اتخاذ شود که از طریق برنامه‌ریزی و طراحی محیط بتوان شاخص‌های سلامت‌روانی شهروندان همچون استرس درک شده را بهبود بخشید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation the relationship between physical urban environmental Quality and Perceived Stress of Citizen (Case study: Isfahan City)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Reza Azadeh 1
  • Jamal Mohammadi 2
  • Hamid Taher Neshat Doost 3
1 PhD student in Geography and urban planning, faculty of geographical science and planning, university of Isfahan
2 Associate Professor in Geography and urban planning, faculty of geographical science and planning, university of Isfahan
3 Professor in Psychology, faculty of Education and Psychology, university of Isfahan
چکیده [English]

Objectives
There are growing concerns, worldwide, about interdependencies between city life and mental well-being. Perceived stress is one of the mental disorders induced by urbanization. Today, the built environment and neighborhood's quality in which residents live, is realized as the main source of stress. In addition, the recent researches in the context of psychology suggest that city life is stressful. The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the relationship between neighbourhood's quality and perceived stress. In this regard, two neighbourhoods were selected in Isfahan.
Methods
In this study two questionnaires have been used. First questionnaires is the built environment quality questionnaire, written by researchers, and the other is perceived stress scale (PSS-14). Two neighbourhoods were selected for study. The survey was conducted via face-to-face structured interviews and yielded a total of 434 valid samples. Eventually, 203 peoples in MoftAbad neighbourhood and 231 peoples in Mardavij neighbourhood have participated in completing the questionnaire. The data has been analysed using normal and partial correlation coefficients and linear regression.
Result
The descriptive statistics of dependent and independent variables in study neighborhoods have been compared. The evaluation of environmental beauty, in the study neighbourhoods indicate that MoftAbad and Mardavij is, averagely, scored 0.78 and 2.98. The functional attraction in MoftAbad and Mardavij, in average, is 0.77 and 2.81, respectively. The median scores of physical form and environmental comfort variables in MoftAbad are 0.71 and 1.58, and in Mardavij are 2.94 and 2.92. In fact, all environmental variables of MoftAbad neighbourhood quality are scored significantly lower than Mardavij. Totally, the final score of built environment quality in MoftAbad is 0.96 and in Mardavij is 2.91. According to results, in association with dependent variable, it is concluded that the perceived stress level of MoftAbad neighbourhood is higher than Mardavij neighbourhood. The median score of stress in MoftAbad is 2.07 and in Mardavij is 1.04.
The findings show that there is significant and inverse relation between the independent variables of research and the dependent variables. However, when we consider the controller variables, the relation is preserved but its intensity decreases.
Based on results, significant level of F-statistic in all three models is 0.000. This result, which is acquired by analyzing the regression and analyzing variance, indicates that the conceptual model of research is well fitted. In MoftAbad, two variables are (environmental beauty and Environmental comfort) capable of predicting dependent variable changes. In this case, the standard coefficient of mentioned variables are -0.537 and -0.181, respectively. This statistics means that environmental beauty predicts 53.7% and environmental comfort predicts 18.1% of perceived stress changes in MoftAbad. In Mardavij neighbourhood, environmental beauty, functional attraction and environmental comfort, as well, have the most ability to predict the dependent variable. Environmental beauty, functional attraction and environmental comfort, respectively, predicts 22.6%, 28.9% and 14.3% of perceived stress changes. Moreover, in the suggested model for full sample, environmental beauty variable, functional attraction variable and environmental comfort variable predict, respectively, 45.9%, 26.8% and 24.4% of perceived stress changes.
In the second phase of modelling the dependent variable changes, the relationship between built environment quality, as independent variable, and perceived stress, as dependent variable, is evaluated. Also, three models have been suggested in this phase. According to acquired results, the ANOVA analysis explains one significant F-statistic for each one of the three models. The adjusted R-squared of suggested model in MoftAbad is greater than Mardavij neighbourhood. According to this result, it can be said that the effect of built environment on stress of MoftAbad residents is more than Mardavij neighbourhood. Based on standard coefficient (Beta), built environment quality of MoftAbad predicts 67% of Perceived stress changes. On the other hand, the value of this variable in Mardavij is 46.4%. Finally, in the full sample, built environment quality determines 78.3% of perceived stress changes
Conclusion
It is concluded that the relation between urban Planner and psychologists must be augmented in order to improve the variables of resident mental health through environment designing and planning.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • environmental quality
  • Physical Quality
  • mental health
  • Perceived Stress