عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Human health has been an important issue in society. Modern society is increasingly aware that humans and culture are components of the natural environment. In this case, human health is inevitably linked to environmental conditions. Recent changes in urban life including increases in car and motor vehicle usage and environmental pollution make it an important issue that should be considered in the urban development process. Physical inactivity plays a crucial role in obesity leading to many illnesses such as diabetes which in turn often leads to kidney failure, heart disease, blindness, and amputations. A model based on physical activities is an important part of urban design and planning today. Drawing primarily on recent peer-reviewed literature in a broad range of subjects such as health, planning, and environmental fields, outlines the influence of design at three spatial scales of physical health, mental health and socio - cultural aspects. Enough evidence exists to support urban design as a powerful tool for improving human health and condition. Considering health as a pre-condition for the three dimension of sustainable development by the World Health Organization demonstrates that this matter is an important aspect of urban design and planning. Cars permit travel over greater distances between home and work. In addition to generating more air pollution, long commutes have been associated, in a small body of literature, with other adverse effects on human health and welfare. The main goal of this study emphasizes a pedestrian-oriented approach. In order to evaluate this approach, parameters were reviewed under two different criteria, physical –environmental and social- cultural (it is worth mentioning that these parameters have a physical aspect because of our aims in designing our case study). The research method was based on survey and field study operations. A questionnaire was completed by 200 people in “Motahary neighborhood” in Mashhad. The lack of physical activities in cities of developing countries and our city being a case in point means that important steps must be taken to counteract this issue. This paper shows that the provision of properly designed walkways through a mixed-use, human-scaled urban environment increases pedestrian activity. Neighborhood efforts in this direction will not only improve residents’ health through unstructured exercise, but also integrate marginalized sectors into urban life, and enhance the sense of place and community. These elements must be incorporated into relatively high-density neighborhood plans that include public buildings, open spaces, mixed land uses, and pedestrian walkways to increase physical exercise and enhance healthy civic life. Finally, neighborhoods must be embedded in existing urban infrastructure to provide wider cultural and business opportunities and reduce reliance on the automobile. “Motahary neighborhood” was selected as a case study and it is one of oldest neighborhoods in Mashhad. This paper concludes by presenting an urban design guideline in urban neighborhoods for improving human health taking into consideration its two dimensions: physical – environmental and social- cultural criteria. Finally, the recommended model was obtained from survey analysis and other data.