بررسی و تحلیل توزیع عادلانه خدمات شهری و الگوی پراکنش فضایی آنها در شهر همدان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 برنامه ریزی شهری و منطقه ای، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، دانشکده هنر و معماری

2 کارشناس ارشد برنامه ریزی شهری و منطقه ای، پژوهشگر

3 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه دامغان

چکیده

برنامه ریزی شهری از آنجایی که با تخصیص و توزیع منابع کمیاب در بین مکان های مختلف شهر در ارتباط است، متکی بودن آن به معیاری همچون عدالت اجتماعی ضروری تلقی می شود، زیرا در غیر این صورت می تواند به برخورداری برخی از مکان ها نسبت به سایر مکان ها در شهر منجر گردد. از این منظر، نقطه اشتراک برنامه ریزی شهری و عدالت اجتماعی در شهر، عدالت توزیعی است. اساس توزیع عادلانه خدمات شهری نیز توجه به دو معیار قابلیت دستیابی و چگونگی پراکنش فضایی خدمات در شهر می باشد. با توجه به اهمیت موضوع، هدف از تحقیق حاضر بررسی میزان عادلانه بودن توزیع خدمات شهری و الگوی پراکنش فضایی آن در شهر همدان می باشد. تحقیق حاضر از نوع توسعه ای بوده و روش شناسی آن متکی بر توصیفی و تحلیلی است. در این تحقیق برای سنجش معیار میزان دسترسی ساکنان به خدمات شهری (قابلیت دستیابی) از چهار شاخص ضریب ساختار شهری، ضریب اهمیت خدمات، تراکم برخورداری از خدمات و نسبت فاصله ای از خدمات و همچنین برای سنجش معیار پراکنش فضایی خدمات شهری از ضرایب موران و گری استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که میزان دستیابی ساکنان به مجموعه پنج گانه خدمات شهری (آموزشی، درمانی، ورزشی، فضای سبز و فرهنگی_مذهبی) در سطح نابرابری قرار دارد؛ هر چند در مجموع، توزیع یکپارچه آنها در سطح شهر به نسبت متعادل تر است. علاوه بر این نتایج یافته ها از چگونگی پراکنش فضایی میزان دستیابی و تراکم جمعیتی در شهر همدان نشان می دهد که این پراکنش در شهر همدان خوشه ای بوده و تمرکز نیز به سمت محلات برخوردار سوق پیدا کرده است؛ که این وضعیت عمدتاً به عدم برخورداری سکونتگاه های غیررسمی که در شرق و شمال شهر همدان قرار دارند، منجر شده است. بی عدالتی در توزیع خدمات شهری می تواند پیامدهای گوناگونی داشته و شهر را از رسیدن به توسعه پایدار باز دارد. از این رو پیشنهاد می شود که مدیریت شهری، رفع بی عدالتی در توزیع خدمات شهری را در اولویت کاری خود قرار دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Justice Distribution of Urban Services and the their Spatial Distribution Pattern in Hamadan Ciy

نویسندگان [English]

  • h d 1
  • f r 2
  • b a 3
چکیده [English]

The concept of justice is dependent on time and place and so far a definition for it has not been provided. Nevertheless, justice in urban planning is related with fair distribution of resources and public services in a city. Although the demand for distributive justice in urban planning is necessary, it is not sufficient on its own because it neglects fundamental and structural questions such as the distribution of power in the city. No doubt, executing any plans and designs has good impacts on some citizens and bad impacts on citizens with less social and economic power. From this viewpoint, urban development plans and designs are key tools for reducing economic-social inequity in cities. Since urban planning is related to allocation and distribution of scarce resources among various places in the city, it is important for urban planning to rely on criterion such as justice. Otherwise, it can lead to more enjoyment of some places compared to others in a city. The contact point of urban planning and social justice is distributive justice. Distributive justice is based on the distribution of municipal services in the city according to the two criteria of “accessibility” and “spatial distribution”. In recent decades, one of the most important outputs of rapid urbanization and physical development of cities in Iran has been a disintegration in the distribution system of civil service centers. It has been the basis for unequal enjoyment of the service system by residents in cities. Thus, the most important duty of urban planners and managers is to achieve just distribution of public services for different groups in urban society and to decrease inequality in accessibility to public services such as health and educational services, and green spaces. Unjust distribution of public services will lead to social crises and spatial complex problems in cities. By considering the importance of this issue, the key aim of this study is to evaluate the level of just distribution of municipal services in Hamadan city. It seems that the distribution of municipal services in Hamadan city is unjust. The present study is a developmental study using descriptive analysis methodology. To measure residents’ access to municipal services, network analysis method was employed. To measure the spatial distribution of municipal services, the Gary Moran coefficients were used. The findings of this study show that resident access to educational, sport, health, cultural and religious and green space services in Hamadan city is not acceptable. Moreover, spatial distribution of municipal services in Hamadan city has a cluster pattern. The cluster pattern in spatial distribution of municipal services indicates that some areas have more services than others in the city. The study results show that distribution of municipal services in Hamadan city is unjust. This injustice has various consequences and it can be a barrier to achieving sustainable development. In addition, it can lead to civil protests. It is recommended that city managers who eliminate and decrease present injustices in the distribution of municipal services should be given top priority.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Distributive Justice
  • Spatial distribution
  • Accessibility
  • Municipal Services
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