سنجش اثرات همگرایی نیروهای مذهب و اقتصاد در شکل و فرم منطقه ثامن شهر مشهد در دوره معاصر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 شهرسازی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

وجود بارگاه حضرت رضا)ع( در شهر مشهد، مهمترین عامل جذب جمعیت و رونق فعالیت ها در ناحیه کنونی شهر مشهد است و تأثیر منحصر به فردی بر کمیت و کیفیت توسعه فیزیکی شهر مشهد داشته است. این عامل حائز اهمیت، نه تنها باعث تبدیل منطقه پیرامونی حرم مطهر به یکی از باشکوه ترین و وسیع ترین مجموعه های آرامگاهی جهان اسلام و موجب ظهور یکی از پردرآمدترین مناطق اقتصادی و گردشگری کشور شده، بلکه تأثیر قابل توجهی بر کمیت و کیفیت توسعه فیزیکی شهر مشهد داشته است. در مطالعه شکل و فرم بافت های شهری، نقش عوامل مختلفی مانند عوامل طبیعی، اقتصادی، فرهنگی، مذهبی و ... را می توان مشاهده نمود. به دلیل ماهیت معنوی و مذهبی منطقه ثامن، عوامل مذهبی نقش مهمی بر جهت گیری توسعه آن داشته اند. به علاوه، وجود فرصت های سرمایه گذاری با ارزش برای سرمایه گذاران خصوصی و عمومی، نقش عوامل اقتصادی را بر توسعه شهری این منطقه قابل توجه ساخته است. بنابراین به نظر می رسد که بین عوامل تبیین کننده شکل و فرم شهری، دو عامل مذهبی )معنوی( و اقتصادی )مادی( اساس یترین تغییرات منطقه ثامن مشهد را باعث شده اند. این مقاله، با هدف بررسی نقش دو نیروی قابل توجه )ارزشهای مذهبی و ارزشهای اقتصادی(بر شکل و فرم بافت پیرامون حرم )منطقه ثامن(، در دوره معاصر، به دنبال شناخت ارزشهای معنوی ) مذهب( و ارزشهای مادی )اقتصادی( و ارزیابی اثرات همگرایی و تعامل این دو نیرو بر شکل و فرم نهایی منطقه با استفاده از روش تحقیق تحلیلی _ توصیفی است. به این ترتیب، از یک سو به توصیف ویژگی های شکلی منطقه ثامن در مراحل مختلف رشد و تحول آن به شیوه توصیفی تحول سنجی می پردازد و از سوی دیگر، چرایی و چگونگی اثرگذاری دو نیروی قدسی و مادی در شکل و فرم این منطقه در دوره های مختلف تحلیل می شود. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که این دو نیرو به طور هم عرض و در جهات مختلف، بافت شهری منطقه ثامن را دستخوش تغییرات جدی کرده اند و شکل و فرم نهایی منطقه ثامن تحت تأثیر کشاکش و تقابل دائمی بین این دو نیرو شکل گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the Convergence Effects of Religious and Economic forces on the Contemporary Changes in Form and Shape of Samen Region, Mashhad

نویسندگان [English]

  • E S 1
  • M P 2
  • M R 2
چکیده [English]

The Holy Shrine of Imam Reza (the eighth Shia Imam), located in the historical and foremost central part of Mashhad, has been the main factor in Mashhad’s developments, physical spread, economic and population growth. The large public investments and the greater tendency for investors in the peripheral region surrounding Imam Reza’s holy shrine, called Samen region, lead the shrine complex to be one of the most superb and glorious tomb complexes in the world. In fact, the specific characteristics of the region cause it to attract many tourists and pilgrims and as a result attract many investors, generating high income. The consequences of large private and public developments and many investment opportunities can be seen in the shape and form of the region and even the whole of the city. To study the form and shape of a city or a city region, various factors including social, physical, environmental, economic factors should be considered. Because of the religious and spiritual nature of Samen region, the religious forces have had important roles in its directions of development. In addition, having high value investment opportunities for public and private investors, economic forces have also greatly interfered in the urban development of the area. Thus, amongst the factors describing urban shape and form, the two factors of religion (spirituality) and economy (materialism) have had the largest impact on the Samen region of Mashhad. This paper aims to find the role of spiritual and materialistic values in the shape and form of Samen region since 1920 (the first Pahlavi era). In fact, it is supposed that the convergence of spiritual and materialistic forces in Samen region have considerably influenced Samen’s physical structure. These forces which appear to be naturally in conflict have made the final shape of Samen region a contrast to the identity and needs of local and former residents. Therefore, it tries to find the religious and economic values in Samen region and assess how the values interact with each other. First, the effect of spiritual and sacred values as well as economic and materialistic values on the form and shapes of cities, in particular holy cities, were investigated. Second, urban changes (changes in city shape and form) in Samen region were analysed according to spiritual and materialistic factors. The research methodology used was qualitative descriptive analysis in order to obtain answers to the research questions. In addition, to prove the claims, it used existing documents concerning Astan Ghods and various trustees of Imam Reza holy shrine in the current century. Moreover, the new urban development plan, related publications, historical maps and pictures were used to describe the changes in urban form and shape. The results show that these two factors as conflicting forces have had enormous influence on the urban physical and land use changes in Samen region. Thus, the final urban shape and form of Samen region is the result of these two continual opposing forces. Finally, the competition square used for shows, exponential growth of magnificent courtyards and glorious buildings of the holy shrine complex, splendid commercial and high-rise residential buildings surrounding the complex have led to the retreat and exclusion of former tradespeople, residents and entrepreneurs of the region, in particular low-income and medium-income groups of citizens.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • urban form
  • Economic values
  • Religious values
  • Samen Region
  • Mashhad
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