بررسی تاثیر کاربری زمین بر رفتار عابران در خیابان های شهری (نمونه موردی خیابان دانشجو- مشهد)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد طراحی شهری، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه شهرسازی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

امروزه خیابان‌های شهری به سبب وجود کاربری‌های مختلف، از جمله تأثیرگذارترین عناصر شهری در زندگی روزمره شهروندان هستند. اما متاسفانه بی توجهی طراحان و برنامه ریزان شهری به تأثیرات کاربری‌ها بر رفتار عابران، اثرات نامطلوبی بر کیفیت‌های فضای شهری از جمله تعاملات اجتماعی و تنوع بخشی فعالیت‌ها را به همراه داشته است. در این بین بررسی پژوهش‌های پیشین نشان می‌دهد که در ادبیات طراحی شهری مطالعه رفتارهای عابران صرفا معطوف به حرکت پیاده بوده و به تأثیر انواع کاربری‌ها بر رفتار عابران در فضاهای شهری کمتر توجه شده است. از این رو مطالعه حاضر بر آن است تا با بررسی تأثیر کاربری‌ها بر انواع فعالیت‌ها و رفتار عابران علاوه بر تأمین خلاء تحقیقاتی موجود پیرامون عوامل عملکردی مؤثر در ایجاد سرزندگی در طراحی شهری به فراهم نمودن زمینه مطلوب جهت ایجاد تنوع رفتاری با تأکید بر نوع کاربری در خیابان دانشجو‌‌ی مشهد بپردازد. لذا مخاطب اصلی این مقاله را می‌توان طراحان و برنامه ریزان شهری دانست. مقاله حاضر به صورت کیفی و از نوع توصیفی-تحلیلی است و در آن از روش‌هایی نظیر مشاهده و ثبت الگوهای رفتاری، برای بررسی رفتار عابران و انجام دادن بازدیدهای میدانی و پرسشنامه برای جمع آوری اطلاعات پیرامون کاربری‌ها استفاده شده است. اطلاعات به دست آمده از این طریق به کمک آزمون همبستگی پیرسون مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته است. یافته‌های این مقاله نشان می‌دهد میان کاربری‌ها و رفتار عابران رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. در نهایت نتیجه به دست آمده دراین مقاله حاکی از آن است که کاربری‌های با مقیاس عملکردی ناحیه و کاربری‌های با میزان تناوب مراجعه یک یا چند بار در ماه و پاسخ گو به نیازهای ثانویه، قادر به ایجاد رفتارها و فعالیت‌های متنوع تر عابران در خیابان هستند.   

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of land use on the behavior of pedestrians in the urban streets (The case of Daneshjou Street in Mashhad)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azin Mostofi 1
  • Hadi Sarvari 2
1 Department of Art and Architecture, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad university, Mashhad, Iran.
2 Department art and architecture، Mashhad branch، Islamic Azad university، Mashhad، Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract
This research attempts to shed light on land use impact on activities and pedestrian behavior. Furthermore, this paper aims to analyze the influential factors on urban street livability and vitality in order to provide a favorable basis to improve behavior diversity in urban public space. Daneshjou Street is a case study in this article. This street is located in western Mashhad. Mashhad is the capital of Khorasan_Razavi Province. According to pervious research, all actions undertaken to respond to human needs is considered an activity but behavior is how we do these activities. In this article, the category of Jan Gehl (necessary activities, optional activities, social activities) is used for studying behavior.  According to investigation toward land use planning, we can consider frequency of use, the purpose of visits, and functional scales as essential land use properties. All these land use properties have a variety of sub-criteria. The purpose of the visit are a response to secondary needs  and primary needs. Land use functional scales have neighborhood scale, regional scales, and district scales. Frequency of use includes once or more visits in a day, once or more visits in a week,  once or more visits in a month, once or more visits in a year and  visits at uncertain times. In this case study, we determined 5 types of land use:Commercial, Office, Open space (park),  Mix-use residential and general service (gas station). This article is trying to answer the following question: "How do different land uses cause different behaviors? It seems that most urban design literature and text books have focused on the effects of different land uses on people‘s activities, and behaviors in urban public space is not studied or only narrowed to pedestrian walkways. This is a qualitative and descriptive analytic research study. The chosen methodology for the study behavior was direct observation and behavior pattern analysis and the methodology for studying land use comprised of observations and questionnaires. The sample size was 138. In Daneshjou Street, there are diverse activities and behaviors; for instance, it was possible to consider Walk to shops, Walk to do something, Transit, Walk to do a job, stand to do something or stand to wait as necessary activities and stroll, sit to eat and drink, sit to read, sit to rest and stand to eat and drink as optional activities. In addition, social activities observed included 2 people or more talking to each other, Cultural events and buying from venders. In Daneshjou Street, Mashhad, the frequency of necessary activities, optional activities and social activities were 29.5%, 33.7% and 36.8%, respectively.. Thus, social activities occurred more frequently than others activities in this case study. Pearson correlation test and chi square test were used for analyzing the information In conclusion, this study proves that land uses with a district functional scale, land uses with more than once a week visit frequency, and land uses responding to secondary needs could provide more variety of pedestrian behaviors in Daneshjou Street. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Land Use
  • Activity
  • Behavior
  • Pedestrian
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