مدل ارزیابی حس مکان براساس مولفه های کالبدی ، ادراکی ، عملکردی و اجتماعی، نمونه موردی: خیابان امام ارومیه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد طراحی شهری دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز

2 استادیار طراحی شهری دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز

چکیده

امروزه مفهوم مکان و حس مکان یکی از مهمترین مسائل پیش روی شهرسازی معاصر است.درگذشته شهرها از توانایی بالایی در جهت برقراری تعامل بین انسان و فضا برخوردار بودند. اما امروزه در غالب شهرها فضاهایی ایجاد می شوند که فاقد هویت و معنا بوده و صرفا تقلیدی از سایر نمونه هاست.تکرار الگوهای بی هویت و غربی در فضاهای شهری موجب به حاشیه رانده شدن اصول مکان سازی و هویت گردیده است.در این پژوهش سعی شده با مطالعه مبانی مکان و حس مکان، به بررسی این موضوع پرداخته شود که آیا یک محور واحد شهری در خرد فضاهای داخلی نظیر سکانس، نیز ارائه یکپارچه ای از مفهوم حس مکان دارد؟ در همین راستا به ارائه مدلی برای بررسی فضاهای شهری از این منظر پرداخته شده است. سپس با توجه به مدل ارائه شده، سکانس های مختلفی از یک خیابان-خیابان امام خمینی(ره) شهر ارومیه-به عنوان نمونه موردی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است.براساس یافته های تحقیق سکانس های محور امام خمینی در آفرینش مفهوم مکان برای مردم یکسان عمل نکرده و کاربران نسبت به بخش های مختلف این خیابان حس های مختلفی را ابراز نموده اند. روش این پژوهش توصیفی–تحلیلی و مورد پژوهی و روش گردآوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای،اسنادی ومیدانی(مشاهده،پرسشنامه و مصاحبه)می باشد. نتایج حاصل از مطالعات، صحت فرضیه فوق را به اثبات می رساند که محور امام خمینی در شهر ارومیه در پیاده سازی مفهوم مکان به صورت یکپارچه عمل نکرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A conceptual model to evaluate the sense of place using four factors of perceptual, physical, social and functional (the Case study of Imam Street in Urmia, Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • masoumeh ayashm 1
  • morteza mirgholami 2
چکیده [English]

Abstract
The concepts of place and sense of place have attracted many contemporary researchers in the field of urban design and planning. In the past, cities had a higher ability to establish connection between humans and space. Today, however, cities consist of many spaces without identity and meaning which are produced through a process of homogenization emerging from capitalist urbanization. The production of non-places and identical spaces has marginalized the identity of local places and cultures. By using inconsistent pattern with the site context, only human's temporary needs will be resolved and regardless of place concept and a sense of place, urban spaces are formed in cities. Promotion of placelessness is the only feature of this kind of urban spaces making.
This research, by studying the fundamentals of place and the sense of place, examines the question of whether an integrated urban street has a unique sense of place in all its small parts such as its sequences. Through a critical review of different place features and models for evaluation of sense of place, a new model was synthesized. This model was then been used to analyze a case study in Urmia city (different sections of Imam Khomeini Street). Division of Emam Khomeini Street to different parts are based on people’s mental images  and perception of this street. Three methods were used for analyzing this urban space. In the first method, according to the writer's field observation and final model ( presented in this study), Emam Khomeini street was analyzed. In the second method, results of the questionnaire  based on some spatial words that describe the quality of urban spaces were presented. In the third method, parts of Emam Khomeini Street were analyzed using land use maps and land use distribution patterns. According to the findings, different parts of Imam Khomeini Street have different identities and thus create different senses of places. in addition, the amount of land use vitality in these parts of Emam Khomeini Street supported this fact.based on the results of this study, the amount of contribution of each parts are determined according to four factors (perceptual, physical, social and functional) presented in the model. Using this item can identify which aspect needs to be upgraded or modified in each section. In other words, the overall framework for improving urban spaces is clarified. In the third sequence, perceptual, physical and social factors and in first sequence, functional factor should be modified, and these amendments can improve spatial integration.
The research method used was descriptive-analytical using various methods such as library study, documentation and presence in the environment and questionnaire for data collection (field observations and questionnaire design and interviewing). The results of the study confirm the hypothesis that different sections of Emam Khomeini Axis have different impacts on people’s sense of place and meanings of the street.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sense of place
  • Urban Spaces
  • Imam Street
  • identity
  • Urmia
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