تحلیل پارک های شهری از منظر جرم شناسی با استفاده از تکنیک "چیدمان فضا" (مطالعه موردی: پارک لاله تهران)*

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری شهرسازی، عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد یاسوج

2 دکتری معماری، عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده فنی و مهندسی دانشگاه یاسوج

3 پژوهشگر دکتری معماری دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحدیاسوج

چکیده

کیفیت کارکردی فضاهای تجمعی در طراحی­ محیطی و شهری دارای جایگاه ویژه­ای می­باشد و در راستای ارتقای عملکرد مطلوب این دست از فضاهای شهری، لحاظ نمودن مؤلفه­های امنیتی، اهمیتی خاص دارد­. این مؤلفه­ها شامل شاخص­های عینی و ذهنی می­شوند که عدم تعبیه آنها در فضاهایی با تعداد کاربران نا­محدود، عملکرد کلی فضا را نیز تحت­الشعاع قرار می­دهد. هدف از انجام پژوهش حاضر، بررسی برخی از مؤلفه­های عینی یا به عبارتی کالبدی در یکی از این فضاهای جمعی یعنی پارک­هاست. به منظور تدقیق یافته­های حاصل و بررسی ترجیحات کاربران، به ارزیابی مؤلفه­های­ ذهنی (ادراک کاربران از فضا) نیز پرداخته خواهد شد. در تحقیق حاضر کیفیت عینی فضا با توجه به ویژگی­های نظریه نحوفضا که به بررسی شاخص­های کالبدی فضا می­پردازد، به وسیله­ شاخص­های نحوی ارزیابی می­شود. ابزار دیگر پژوهش، روش تحقیق میدانی (برداشت­های میدانی و محیطی) و پرسشنامه­، مصاحبه و مشاهدات عینی پژوهشگران خواهد بود. بنابراین ویژگی­های ذهنی و ادراکی کاربران از منظر "امنیت" بدین وسیله مورد بررسی قرار می­گیرد. این پژوهش با طرح مسئله و معرفی روش چیدمان فضا در تحلیل محیط مورد نظر خود، سعی بر آن دارد که موضوع جرم­خیزی (امنیت و یا عدم امنیت) یک محیط را فارغ از مسائل تأثیرگذار بر ادراک استفاده­کنندگان مورد تحلیل قرار دهد (البته در گام نخست). با این حال پس از بررسی موضوع با این روش، برای اعتبارسنجی یافته­های به دست آمده، از راهبرد پیمایشی نیز به منظور تطبیق یافته­ها با نقطه نظرات استفاده­کنندگان از فضا نیز بهره برده است (در گام دوم).  بر این اساس و به منظور دستیابی به هدف پژوهش، پس از معرفی ابزارهای مورد نظر تحقیق، ابتدا کل محوطه­ پارک به وسیله­ مؤلفه­های نحوی مورد سنجش قرار خواهد گرفت و در کنار آن از فرایند پرسشنامه باز، مشاهدات میدانی و نقشه­های شناختی نیز استفاده خواهد شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان می­دهد که جامعه­ آماری مورد نظر تحقیق،  به دلایل ذهنی مختلف از حضور در برخی از نقاط پارک پرهیز می­کنند. در برخی مواقع کیفیت محیط و در مواردی دیگر  ویژگی­های ذهنی محیط بر ایجاد حس ناامنی فضا دامن می­زند و به نظر می­رسد که نهایتاً  فاکتورهای ذهنی بر شاخص­های محیطی در انتخاب فضا در اولویت قرار دارد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Urban Park Space in Terms of Criminology through “Space Syntax” Technique (Case Study: Laleh Park in Tehran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • y p 1
  • A H 2
چکیده [English]

Functional quality of cumulative spaces is special to environmental and urban design. In line with improvement of functional quality of these urban places, it is important to take security elements into account. These elements include both objective and subjective indicators. The absence of these components in such spaces with unlimited users affects their overall performance. The aim of this study is to examine some visual or skeletal components in one of these communal spaces, i.e. parks. To validate research findings and user preferences, subjective factors (users’ perception of space) will also be evaluated. In this research, the objective quality of space will be assessed through space syntax indices following the characteristics of the space syntax theory which investigates the physical parameters of space. Other research tools include field research (environmental and field data), questionnaires, interviews and researchers’ observations. The subjective and perceptual characteristics of users in terms of “security” are hereby placed under investigation. After stating the problem and introducing Space Syntax theory in the environment analysis, this paper tries to analyze the issue of crime hotspots (security or lack of security) in the environment regardless of the effective factors on the users’ perceptions (first step).
After analyzing the issue by this method, the survey strategy was used to validate the obtained results and to adapt them to the views of space users (second step). To achieve the objectives of the research, after the introduction of research tools, the total area of the park was determined by syntax factors and then open questionnaires, field observations and cognitive maps were used. The results showed that the population of the research avoided some parts of the park due to different subjective reasons. In some cases, environmental quality and, in some other cases, subjective characteristics of the environment were effective on creating a sense of insecurity with the space. Ultimately, it seems that subjective factors have priority over environmental indicators in selecting a space. Other important results of the research are as follows:
- The central area of the park seems to be desirable. This is because of its shallow depth and lack of permeability as well as the low level of monitoring due to the structural and skeletal features of the environment.
- A favorable environment in urban parks in terms of security is a place which has relatively large terraces with few wide passageways without any deadlock.
- Safe spaces in parks have proper lighting. Accordingly, there should be no tall and broadleaf trees in the main communication areas, especially on the passageways, so that they would not block lighting in the night.
- When these spaces have innovative design features and create the subjective sense of belonging to the place in people, even in the absence of some objective characteristics of a safe environment, they will lead to increased usability of the environment, socialization of the space and thereby maintaining a desired level of security in the environment.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • parks
  • environmental characteristics
  • so space
  • Security
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